Sunday, November 24, 2019

Free Essays on Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea Sleep is essential to life; it is one of several components, including food and water, which keep the living alive. However, a significant percentage of the human population has considerable difficulty reaching and maintaining Stage IV within their sleeping patterns, the stage that allows the mind and body to fall into a deep and restorative sleep, otherwise known as REM sleep. At the core of this difficulty is a condition known as obstructive sleep apnea, a "serious, potentially life-threatening condition that is far more common than generally understood" (Sleep Apnea). Indeed, obstructive sleep apnea can be very dangerous if it is not properly detected and treated. What is Sleep Apnea? Research findings indicate that nearly eighteen million Americans suffer with the dangerous and exhausting effects of sleep apnea, in which "certain mechanical and structural problems in the airway cause the interruptions in breathing during sleep" (Sleep Apnea). It is important for the student to know that telltale signs of a potential problem include loud snoring, obesity, high blood pressure and a physical blockage of the nose, throat or upper airway. Its prevalence appears to be genetic to some degree; however, its appearance in overweight patients also indicates that its composition is rooted in both genetics and environment. Sleep apnea occurs in two separate modes: central and obstructive, with central sleep apnea being less common between the two. The brain fails to send proper signals to the breathing muscles as a means by which to commence respirations during sleep in central sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea, on the other hand, is significantly more Common, transpiring at the point when air is obstructed from flowing into or out of the nose or mouth, "characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction that occur during sleep, usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation" (Obstructive Sleep ... Free Essays on Sleep Apnea Free Essays on Sleep Apnea Sleep Apnea Sleep is essential to life; it is one of several components, including food and water, which keep the living alive. However, a significant percentage of the human population has considerable difficulty reaching and maintaining Stage IV within their sleeping patterns, the stage that allows the mind and body to fall into a deep and restorative sleep, otherwise known as REM sleep. At the core of this difficulty is a condition known as obstructive sleep apnea, a "serious, potentially life-threatening condition that is far more common than generally understood" (Sleep Apnea). Indeed, obstructive sleep apnea can be very dangerous if it is not properly detected and treated. What is Sleep Apnea? Research findings indicate that nearly eighteen million Americans suffer with the dangerous and exhausting effects of sleep apnea, in which "certain mechanical and structural problems in the airway cause the interruptions in breathing during sleep" (Sleep Apnea). It is important for the student to know that telltale signs of a potential problem include loud snoring, obesity, high blood pressure and a physical blockage of the nose, throat or upper airway. Its prevalence appears to be genetic to some degree; however, its appearance in overweight patients also indicates that its composition is rooted in both genetics and environment. Sleep apnea occurs in two separate modes: central and obstructive, with central sleep apnea being less common between the two. The brain fails to send proper signals to the breathing muscles as a means by which to commence respirations during sleep in central sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea, on the other hand, is significantly more Common, transpiring at the point when air is obstructed from flowing into or out of the nose or mouth, "characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction that occur during sleep, usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation" (Obstructive Sleep ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT - Essay Example The performance management system at Thermo Scientific is majorly past-performance oriented. There is a very Limited focus upon future performance i.e. evaluation of an employees potential or setting future performance goals or his suitability for handling bigger responsibilities. Since the rating scale ranges from 1-4, less chances of a bell shaped curve resulting due to Forced distribution. Use of Bell curve creates a lot of dissatisfaction amongst employees as this system leads to forced categorization; reduced organizational flexibility even for deserving candidates. A component of self appraisal for employee’s involvement & commitment to the improvement process could be added. Citation of reasons for variations between ‘expected’ & ‘actual’ performance should be a necessary component of self appraisal.67 Competencies vary across managerial levels. But, in the performance appraisal form, no such categorization seems to have been made. The same form applies to all the employee designations. It is suggested that more sophisticated methods for senior executive positions should be used. The filling of appraisal form should be made online. This will save time for an organization like Thermo Scientific which has branches across diverse areas. It will also lead to savings of a lot of paper. There is a need for a Mandatory ‘Appraisal & Counseling’ Interview; staff should be given opportunity to discuss performance which encourages a two-way communication and allows the candidate to address his concerns The component of Management by Objectives (MBO) should be a necessary addition to the Performance Management System at Thermo Scientific. In MBO, the management & employees agree upon a set of objectives and then work to attain them. It is a process of participative goal setting. The employee feels more accountable if he is involved in deciding his

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Marketing management - Emirates Airlines Assignment

Marketing management - Emirates Airlines - Assignment Example Emirates Airlines is one of the profitable airlines in the world. It is the world’s second most profitable airlines (Graham, Papatheodorou and Forsyth 157). However, it is vital to practice a proper marketing strategy for the sustainable position. The 7 Ps of marketing mix and the PLC is very much important. The CRM must be maintained, the loyal customers are the real buyers of the products in the long term basis. The airline industry is basically the hospitality industry and in this particular industry the customer relation is the most important marketing communication key. The traditional marketing mixes are very much important in most of cases and they are product, price, place and promotion. However, in case of service based industries the four Ps of traditional marketing Mixes are not enough. There are three more entities which are very much important and they are people, physical evidence and process. Among these people and process are the communicating entities which ar e very important for doing business. However the physical evidence is the most important for the product as the physical evidence give out the most important significance for the sales of the product. The emirates airline is among the top service providers in the airlines industry. The company is pretty much up market with the expected demand of the consumers. The hospitality industry is a very fragile industry. One mistake can create a lifelong bad impression for a particular product. So, in case of service oriented industry the customer relation management and the post sales services are pretty much important for a long term business relation with the existing customers. Marketing is the

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Financial Intermediation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Financial Intermediation - Essay Example In addition, the study would also reflect about how the policymakers have made deliberate efforts to ease up different financial markets, encourage foreign competition and deregulate interest rates (Ariss, 2010). Globalisation is another issue in today’s economic concern. Increasing competitiveness would be the result of increasing the level of globalisation, as this tends to promote foreign investments by developing domestic businesses and improvising the performance of domestic banks. In relation to the above context, the study of Ariss (2010) mainly depicted the implications of changing banks’ structure and their prospects towards rapid development in contemporary world. Ariss (2010) reflected in the study that the banks could improve their profit efficiency with commanding a high price mark-up over the marginal costs, but it could not help in terms of cost efficiency levels. Apart from this, the study of Ariss (2010) also inferred that when the banks are able to gain market power, it can reduce various risks that emerge while performing distinct operations and likewise confirm firm stability. In this particular issue of stability, the study of Ariss (2010) discussed about the methodology of distinct economic variables including market power, regulatory environment, cost efficiency, sustainability in economic market and alternative efficiency with portfolio characteristics. The aforesaid study of Ariss (2010) indicated the acquisition process prevailing in the economic market including merger between domestic business and foreign investments or business to develop sustainability programme in competitive business setting of developing countries (Aris s, 2010). More importantly, with regards to the above context, the study of Ariss (2010) revealed that the occurrence of worldwide crisis in financial sectors would demonstrate the role of a country towards developing its uproar hitting financial

Friday, November 15, 2019

Australias Involvement In The Vietnam War Essay

Australias Involvement In The Vietnam War Essay In the 1960s communism was spreading to the biggest nations in the world. Communism is where by the government controls the nation. When communism was in Vietnam it hit North of Vietnam and slowly it was going to spread to the South. The ANZUS forces wanted all nations to be under capitalism. Capitalism is where there is private ownership of a business and property. When the news spread about communism there was a fear of communism in Asia and soon Australian. The Australian population was divided when it came to sending Australian soldiers to the Vietnam to help the America in the war. Some Australians felt that the decision to go to war in Vietnam was a good idea. These groups were the liberal government catholic church. Some groups like the R.S.L opposed to going to Vietnam War and the s.o.s mums and the Protestant Churches. When the Menzies government declared publicly that Australian troops were going to be sent to Vietnam there was a huge division in Australian society. Many people supported the governments decision and many people opposed the governments decision. The Liberal Party was all the way with the Menzies decision and the actions he had taken. When Menzies decided resigned in 1966. Harold Holt had taken over his position, the liberal party was behind him in every decision he made. Holt brought Australia in a very close relationship with America. He was very close friend with the American President Lyndon Baines Johnson. People referred to him as LBJ. In 1966 after a visit to Washington DC, where Holt was given a kind welcoming by Johnson, he acknowledged that when it came to Vietnam, Australia was behind America and All the way with LBJ. If South Vietnam were to fall to communism, and as the domino effect theory suggested would happen to other Asian countries like Thailand, Myanmar and Malay a were to follow and after the world would go under communism. Many people didnt even care about Vietnam until they herd it was going to be under communism. Beside the reaction at the election polls, opinion polls also showed widespread support among the people for the government decision to go to war. In a Morgan Gallup a poll held in May 1965, 52%  said they supported government policy in Vietnam, 37%  opposed it and 11%  were undecided. Some Australians thought that going to war was the right thing to do as some Australians have that mentally. The anti-war protest began in 1962 when the first Australian troops were sent to Vietnam to fight with America. Most of the protest/anti-war movement was strongly against conscription. Many of the trade unions called the governments support of Americas decisions and foreign policy in Vietnam blood for dollars, or diggers for dollars. They believed the Australian government believed that if they sacrifice Australian troops America will boost Australias economy. In later years, no other group would be more associated with anti-war activities, but reaction in the universities immediately after the announcement was quite mixed, with some support as well as opposition.  Every evening, television broadcast the horror of Vietnam around the world and brought it into Australian homes. By 1970, the anti-war sentiment had rapidly grown into huge rallies, marches, church services, sit-ins and candlelight processions. These united protest movements demanded a moratorium (a suspension) of the Vi etnam War. The Vietnam War moratorium rallies of 1970 appealed to people as a way of displaying their support for the end of the war. The first Moratorium Day was held in the United States with hundreds of thousands of people stopping work in a mass protest demanding that the United States government withdraw from Vietnam immediately.   Psychologically, Australia had been prepared for another war since the conflict in Korea. Compulsory military training and universal conscription had been briefly re-introduced in 1951. The Australian people had been told so often to prepare for war that they all thought it was only a matter of time before they would have to go into battle with the communists. Many people were thinking why wait until its too late and fight them when they invade our own land lets go out and meet this threat head on. This reason is pretty straightforward and is linked to the fear of communism. Geographically, Vietnam is on Australias doorstep. If South Vietnam were to fall to communism, and as the domino effect theory suggested would happen other Asian countries like Thailand, Myanmar and Malaya were to follow. So Australia to go to war, in my opinion, was the right thing to do.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Jogging and Walking for your Health :: essays research papers

Have you ever stopped to think how much you actually walk every day? We take dozens of little walking trips just to do errands and daily chores. Walking and Jogging is a way of life to some people more than others, it can improve fitness and trim your body. It can also be an enjoyable experience if you have the proper equipment and the proper strategy. Take brisk 30 to 40 minute walks at least three days a week. Aerobic walking increases the efficiency of your heart and lungs, lowers blood pressure and resting heart rate, relieves stress, raises metabolism, improves muscle tone, and improves the health of the bones. If your pace is too slow, however, you will not get the aerobic benefits. If you are out of shape, overweight, or older, begin your exercise program with walking, not jogging. Keep your pace slow at first, and then gradually increase the speed of walking. You need to exercise gently and then rest, exercise gently and rest, over and over. Gradually you will get fitter and your resting heart rate will decrease. Then your body will be ready to begin jogging, not before. If your goal is to lose fat, exercise for long periods of brisk walking. Duration and frequency are very important. If you walk at a fast pace over long distances, you need to wear good shoes with a reasonable amount of cushioning. This is especially important for overweight walkers. Walking ought to be comfortable. If your knees and hip joints are constantly uncomfortable at a brisk walking pace, you may do better with hiking, bicycling, or even jogging. Sudden demands on your muscles, like running up stairs, pedaling a bike, or lifting a heavy weight, may cause the muscles to burn. The burn indicates a build-up of lactic acid in those muscles. Slow walking is the best way to get rid of lactic acid. The more aerobically trained you are, the less you will feel the burn. This means you can exercise longer and harder before getting the burn. Always warm up for 5 to 10 minutes. Walk slowly and stretch before you start a faster workout.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Decision Support for Best Practices Lessons Learned

Decision support for best practices: Lessons learned on bridging the gap between research and applied pratice. Today, everyone is looking at best practices for developing a system or making the right choice in acquiring system components. If the right best practices are applied, they help to avoid common problems and improve quality, cost, or both. However, finding and selecting an appropriate best practice is not always an easy endeavor. In most cases guidance, based on sound experience, is missing; often the best practice is too new, still under study, or the existing experiences do not fit the user's context.This article reports on a program that tries to bridge the gap between rigorous  empirical research  and practical needs for guiding practitioners in selecting appropriate best practices. ********** Many program managers would agree that using time-tested â€Å"Best Practices† can help to avoid common problems and increase the quality of a system, reduce development cost, or both. For instance, in a short survey at the 2004 Conference on the Acquisition of Software-Intensive Systems, 48 senior systems and software managers supported the use of Best Practices.However, the same survey indicated that it is hard to find such Best Practices. The survey identified the following reasons for this problem: * Best practices often do not exist (i. e. , they have not been publicly documented), * People do not know of a certain best practice, or * Best practices are not easily accessible (i. e. , there is no central place to look for best practices). The last point matches a more general study by the Delphi Group in which more than 65 percent of the interviewees agreed that finding the right nformation to do their job is difficult (Delphi, 2002). Further research conducted by the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) concluded that barriers for the adoption of best practices included: * the lack of selection criteria among practices within cost-constrained pro grams, * the lack of confidence in the value of such practices by the program offices, and * the inability to relate practices to the risks and issues programs were facing. In summary, recognizing good practices and  disseminating  them to the workforce seems to be a key issue.To address these issues the DoD Acquisition Best Practices Clearinghouse (BPCh) program, sponsored by several offices of the DoD (DS,  ARA, National Information Infrastructure [NII], and Defense Procurement ; Acquisition Policy [DPAP]), was initiated in 2003 (Dangle, Dwinnell, Hickok ; Turner, 2005). The Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering, Maryland (FC-MD) was chosen to develop the initial â€Å"proof of concept† for a system to document, evaluate, and  disseminate  Best Practices.In collaboration with other organizations within the DoD and industry (including  Northrop Grumman  IT, the Computer Sciences Corporation [CSC], and the Systems and Software Consortium [SSCI] ), a prototype system has been built and piloted. It is currently operated and hosted by the Defense Acquisition University (DAU). THE VISION FOR APPLYING BEST PRACTICES The DoD vision for the BPCh initiative is to provide more than just a list of Best Practices. It is to provide an integrated set of processes, tools, and resources which will enable information seekers to identify emerging or ell-proven practices that have been implemented and proven effective. Practices in the BPCh serve as an information resource to individuals  looking for  ideas on how to improve quality and become more effective in their job. Clearly, the vision of the BPCh is not to create another â€Å"data cemetery,† but to develop an information-sharing network around the BPCh repository which will foster relationships between individuals within DoD and also partnerships between DoD and industry leaders.The following types of questions illustrate usage examples: * â€Å"I just heard about accele rated life testing. Where can I find out if it's useful or just hype? † * â€Å"They've just shortened my testing schedule by 30 percent. Are there any practices that can help me better handle that kind of schedule compression? † * â€Å"I want to add inspections to my quality process. Is it worth the cost and if so, what's a good first step? Is there someone I can contact in case of any difficulties? * â€Å"I've taken over an acquisition program just before Critical Design Review (CDR). What practices should I look for in my contractors? † * â€Å"I'm in charge of defining a training course as part of the  continuing education  program for quality improvements. What are state-of-the-art or emerging practices that should be addressed? † The BPCh has been designed with the understanding that a single practice can never be a â€Å"silver bullet† for each and every project/program.This is because some practices may only be useful or beneficial in certain contexts while failing to produce the desired results in others. For example, practices that are absolutely necessary for large, mission critical projects may be too heavyweight for  rapid prototyping  or Web application development. Practices that work well when the development team is located in the same room may not always scale well when the team is distributed across the country. Clearly, there exists no one â€Å"best† answer. Practices that are best for one user might not be best for the next.Therefore, the BPCh tool responds to user queries with a list of practices rated by how well they fit the project characteristics of the user making the query. The presented selection is compiled using the experience other users have had implementing the practice in a similar context. High-quality evidence about a practice is collected and reported with any necessary caveats, so that information seekers have a sound basis for making up their own minds given their need s. APPLYING TECHNOLOGY TO DELIVER BEST PRACTICESTo develop the BPCh tool, we applied FC-MD's EMPEROR approach (Experience Management Portal using Empirical Results as Organizational Resources). This approach makes use of all kinds of available  evidential  data from research and industry, analyzes and packages it, and disseminates it through a Web-based Experience Base. The EMPEROR is based on the experience factory approach, developed by Basili, Caldiera, and Rombach (1994), which has been successfully employed to facilitate  organizational learning  at  NASA  (Basili, et al. 1995), DaimlerChrysler (Schneider & Schwinn, 2001), and elsewhere in  North America, Europe, and Australia (Koennecker, Jeffery, & Low, 2000; Mendonca,  Seaman, Basili, & Kim, 2001). An experience factory provides a way to analyze results based on practical experience, and package what is learned into an Experience Base for new users of the organization to find and apply. Since the users of the BPCh come from a wide variety of organizations and programs, any Experience Base will have difficulties in addressing all user needs.To mitigate this problem, EMPEROR is required to: (a) provide transparency to users, so that they can understand the analysis process and the sources of experience and make up their own minds; (b) rate the â€Å"trustability† of each of the used sources, so that users can judge the degree of confidence they have in the information provided; and (c) provide a completeness and maturity indicator of the practice information taken as a whole, that is, to perform a self-rating based on how much and what quality evidence can be offered. DATA STRUCTURE OF A BPCH PRACTICEThese sections describe how these requirements are implemented in the case of the BPCh. In the BPCh, each practice has one associated Practice Record, containing information about the practice and what is available in the Clearinghouse, and zero to many Evidence Profiles, each of which contains a summary of a single organization's experience using the practice. A Practice Record consists of: 1. A Practice Detail block, which contains information such as the practice name, a short description, and the completeness and maturity indicator for the experience package. . A Practice Summary block, which synthesizes all available evidence data and describes possible application contexts for the practice based on a set of characterizing attributes. This part of the practice record thereby allows different users (i. e. , organizations) to make use of the practice. An Evidence Profile contains an example or report of some type of program that has used this practice, how they applied it, and what results were obtained.Each Evidence Profile contains the same set of context and result fields as the Practice Summary block, except that the information recorded in each field will describe only what has been observed in the given context of the particular piece of evidence. In add ition, the data structure of an Evidence Profile contains a field for documenting its classification of the trustability. TRUSTABILITY OF A SINGLE SOURCE OF EVIDENCE A 20-point scale rates the trustability of each Evidence Profile.A rating of l indicates an  anecdotal  or informal experience; a rating of 20 indicates that the results of applying the practice are rigorously measured and substantiated. Points are based on the following four dimensions: * how the practice was applied, ranging from a single pilot study to use on multiple real projects; * how the results were measured, ranging from an educated guess to a rigorous measurement program; * how the evidence was reported, ranging from an informal  anecdote  to a peerreviewed publication; and who reported the evidence, ranging from a second-hand report to someone directly involved on the team. More information on the rating scale can be found on the BPCh page of the Acquisition Community Connection of DAU (https://acc. dau. mil/bpch). MATURITY OF A PRACTICE RECORD A 4-point scale is used to rate each Practice Record to quickly inform the user of how much, and what type of, information is known about the practice. As required by EMPEROR, this scale focuses on the quality of the overall accumulated information that is available for a practice (i. e. the  synthesized  and packaged information in the Practice Record). Based on the available information we describe the practice maturity as: * No status assigned/Initial entry: A new Practice Record is initially entered into the BPCh when it is nominated by our experts and/or user communities. Typically at this time, only some of the fields in the Practice Detail block are filled in and no Evidence Profiles are available. * Bronze status/Awareness raised: As soon as any evidence becomes available (i. e. , an Evidence Profile has been linked to the Practice Record), the status is set to Bronze Level.For users, the Bronze Level status indicates that th e practice has been nominated by our experts and user communities, and received a preliminary check for applicability. * Silver status/Evaluation performed: When a sufficient set of Evidence Profiles is available, the BPCh experts will fill in the Practice Summary block and the status is set to Silver Level. For users, the Silver Level status indicates that the practice has been selected as promising enough to commission experts in the area to summarize key information.Users can see at a glance what they should know. * Gold status/Continuously maintained: When the summary has been further evaluated (i. e. , vetted) by experts from industry, academia, and government, the status is set to Gold Level. For users, the Gold Level status indicates that the practice has been through a rigorous analysis by a committee of experts in the practice itself as well as by user representatives. Information on Gold Level practices contains the best and widest-ranging experiences we can find. CONTENT STATUS OF THE BPCHWe have been piloting BPCh processes and tools by seeding initial content. At this point the BPCh contains 51 practices at all levels of maturity. Practices that have progressed to Gold Level are those, like inspection/technical review, which have a long history of published industrial experience. Many practices of interest in the area of systems and software acquisition have few documented sources of evidence or experience. Therefore, we are testing different processes for eliciting information from the workforce.Based on the recommendations of our User Advisory Group, the following types of practices are currently our top-priority areas for additional content: *  Earned Value Management, * Risk Management, * Information Assurance, and * Spiral Development Process. We hope that visitors to the BPCh tool will try out the offered features for providing short stories about their own experience with practices in these (or any other) areas. We encourage you to provid e feedback as to whether you agree or  disagree with  the existing experiences that have been entered, or thoughts on our BPCh tool in general.LESSONS LEARNED Based on our experience with the BPCh program and other knowledgemanagement projects, we can formulate some observations which make useful rules of thumb for good practices to build such systems. The BPCh program has been organized along three parallel (but interconnected) tracks, which reflects our first lesson learned. LESSON 1: PROCEED IN MULTIPLE DIRECTIONS SIMULTANEOUSLY Progress in building a knowledge repository needs to proceed in multiple dimensions simultaneously: content collection, tool development, and outreach.Although there is often a temptation to view these as tasks that can be done sequentially (e. g. , first the tool will be built, then  populated, and then it will be advertised to users), we have found this to be an overly  simplistic  view that diminishes the chance of project success. Constructi ng the tool prior to collecting actual content and getting users' feedback almost ensures that important user needs will be discovered late and will require much more effort to implement. Populating the content without getting user feedback leads to a high likelihood that the content will not really address user needs.More importantly, content needs to come from the user community, if the repository is to have a long-term life. We have found that for the research team to generate substantial amounts of content is a time-consuming way of recreating what many users already have at their  finger tips. Finally, engaging in outreach and building excitement in the community of potential users runs the risk of all prototyping efforts: When told how anything is possible in the final system, users often come up with many wish list features that are not really linked to their everyday needs.Moreover, users often get  frustrated  with the slow pace of progress when the system actually ha s to be implemented, and lose interest before the system is fielded. To avoid these problems, we have adopted an  incremental  approach, with content and tool development going on simultaneously and outreach activities to the user community (such as booths at major conferences, or specific User Advisory Group meetings) planned at major milestones.Although this sometimes stretches resources a bit thin, we feel this approach has enabled us to engage periodically with the user community, show them progress since the last  iteration, and get feedback on ever more mature versions of the system, with an initial body of content. LESSON 2: MAINTAIN A CONTINUOUS STREAM OF FUNDING Because of the interconnected nature of all the tasks listed above, having a stable funding stream is crucial.Requiring the team to take a  hiatus  from the project after a release is delivered leads to lost opportunities for user involvement (users find it hard to match their schedule to the development t eam's), leads to new content ideas that miss getting followed up on, may result in the loss of expertise if experienced personnel resources are in transition to other projects during the hiatus, increases the personnel learning curve encountered at restarts, and may result in flagging interest in the user community since momentum generated during outreach is lost.LESSON 3: RECOGNIZE THE RELATIVE MERITS OF CONTENT Our most important lesson learned is a direct implication of the BPCh vision: There is no such thing as a â€Å"Best Practice. † Or, to say it more diplomatically: No practice will be â€Å"best† for every project. Practices that are absolutely necessary for large, mission-critical projects may be too heavyweight for rapid prototyping or Web application development. The implications of this lesson are many.Perhaps the most important is related to the tone of the recommendations that users find: Rather than arguing as an expert that readers should be following a given practice, or else they are doing something wrong, practices should be recommended to readers on the basis that projects of certain type(s) have found it useful. That is, rather than presenting a  foregone conclusion  to users, the system should aim at respecting users' intelligence enough to enable them to draw their own conclusion, providing sufficient evidence as necessary for those decisions to be sound ones.LESSON 4: UNDERSTAND THE LIFE CYCLE OF BEST PRACTICES Practices (and practice information) are not static and have a real life cycle. Major  paradigm shifts  in the software development world can have an impact on which practices are recommended. The practices that seemed to be good fits for most projects, when a  waterfall  life cycle was the most common approach to software development, are not all equally applicable at the current time, when  iterative, spiral, and even agile approaches are probably more representative of the state-of-the-art practice .Our recommendations regarding a structured life cycle for practice information are: 1. A knowledge repository needs to be continually evolving by accepting information on topics of interest and making it available to users as soon as possible. While some quality checking is necessary to make sure that incorrect, misleading, or incomplete information is disseminated outward, it is better to get information to users as it comes in, than to wait and try to create something perfect.Users should be able to see a timestamp on all information so that they can see if the experiences related are fresh and up to date or come from years ago. 2. However, the desire to get information out quickly should not interfere with the need for validation activities that provide higher confidence in the information. These additional levels of maturity should be noted, to give users more confidence in the information they find, but should not be used as aprecondition  for displaying content. 3.Content n eeds to be retired when appropriate. Practices may have a natural lifespan, since the acquisition and development worlds continue to evolve and change on their own. Practices that were good 10 years ago may not be appropriate given today's constraints or technologies. To avoid users finding obsolete information in the repository, reports need to be generated periodically of which practices have received no updates or new experiences in the longest time. LESSON 5: APPLY AGILE STRATEGIES AND PROTOTYPINGTo create the front end of the BPCh tool, which helps users find candidate practices, explore possibilities, and get more information on practices of real interest, we have found that prototyping and agile strategies are extremely valuable for developing knowledge-management systems. Precisely because of the need for parallel activities in different tracks, and the number of  stakeholders  involved (tool developers, content gathering team, end user representatives, sponsor represent atives), an agile approach is extremely valuable.The implementation of the prototype BPCh tool was carried on in two-week increments, at the end of which a releasable version was always available. At the end of each two-week period, a demonstration and planning meeting was held with as many of the stakeholders as could be present. This approach was necessary to help us coordinate and  prioritize  the evolving expectations of the users as well as the necessary changes that were suggested by the content development team, based on what they were finding. As part of this meeting we learned the following lesson: LESSON 6: USE APPROPRIATE LANGUAGESpeak to the users in their language. Do not expect them to learn yours. We realized early on that having the greatest possible content in the BPCh repository would not be of much help if the users cannot find it. To address this we needed to provide multiple paths to the information, so that users could select the path that made the most sen se to them. Some specific lessons learned here included: 1. Organize around common tasks. The best way to reach users is to organize the contents of the repository  according to  everyday activities that the user performs.This helps users see the repository less as an additional activity that they need to make time for, and more as a value-added to the activities that already consume their time. In the case of BPCh, we added several such perspectives (i. e. , indexes to the content) based around activities of importance to different segments of the user community (e. g. , addressing  CMMI  practice areas, constructing a systems engineering strategy, and referencing back to common guidebooks). 2. Push as well as pull information.Rather than always expecting users to take time to come to browse the BPCh tool, information can be â€Å"pushed† outward to the user on a periodic basis. For example, the user could select some practices of special interest, and when new exper iences come in related to these practices a notification is sent via e-mail. 3. Match users to practices based on context similarity. Since no practice will be â€Å"best† for every project, it is important to match users to practices using context characteristics. This provides the users with a pick list of practices that may be useful in their particular situation, in ddition, it may alert the user to practices that they might not have known about previously. For example, if the user selects a few context variables that describe his/her context, then practices can be prioritized and displayed according to whether they have associated evidence provided by users with similar context information. This is a way of indicating that, even if the practice does not answer a specific search query, users like the current one have found this practice useful and it may be something the user should know. LESSON 7: DEMONSTRATE PRACTICAL EXAMPLES TO INTENDED USERTo engage in effective outr each activities, aimed at building up an interested and active community of users of the BPCh, we find the following lesson of relevance: You can not show initial users an empty  depository. In line with the idea that building a tool like the BPCh needs to proceed on three tracks in parallel (front-end, content, and outreach) is the lesson that populating the content cannot come after the repository is built. Showing users a fancy front-end without an initial set of real content may get their interest for a short time period, but is not an effective way of building an active user community.Users need to see a small but representative set of content which they can respond to and start generating ideas for the next content or tool release. LESSON 8: UPDATE CONTENT AND FUNCTIONALITY CONTINUOUSLY To keep interest engaged, when users do check back to the site they need to see that updates have been made since last time. Content needs to be continuously updated and  refreshed  to st ay abreast of trends. If users ever become convinced that the repository does not get updated on a regular basis, this often spells the end of their involvement.Rather, they need to be motivated to come back often enough to find new things and hopefully, as they progress, be motivated to submit responses and ideas of their own showing emerging trends and keeping the content relevant. Thus, user involvement tends to build more user involvement. As users become interested enough to post comments or send  new ideas  to the repository, other users will continue to be interested to show up to see which comments have been added since the last time and possibly find something of interest to their current situation–and more likely to find something applicable.One way we have experimented with–to reinforce this concept–is to list on the front page of the BPCh tool the most recently added practices and highlight ones that have been promoted to various maturity levels (Bronze, Silver, or Gold). Thus, one of the  first things  users see is an indicator of how much progress has occurred since their last visit. CONCLUSIONS This article has presented some of the lessons learned with the BPCh program, which aims to document practices and quickly disseminate them to the users. The BPCh, which is based on the EMPEROR approach, makes use of a two-dimensional rating scale.These scales provide users with a quick overview of the trustability and maturity of the stored practice records. The scales allow users to understand and to draw their own conclusions based on a set of evidence from different contexts, from research studies as well as industrial experiences, and using measures at different levels of  rigor. Practitioners can rely on this information without reading in detail through the different evidence sources, unless they are interested in the very detailed level of information.In addition, ways to collect user feedback and trigger discussions are offered to allow a vivid and growing user community. While initial feedback regarding the BPCh tool has been positive (Turner & Shull, 2005), we are continuing to improve the BPCh program and its associated tool through ongoing research, advisory groups, and user community feedback. We are interested in addressing such questions as: â€Å"How much extra effort to  certify  evidence sets and summaries as correct is worthwhile to users? † or â€Å"Are there subsets or types of evidence that users will find especially worthwhile? We invite you to take a look at our BPCh tool, available at http://bpch. dau. mil. We appreciate all feedback, whether it be submitted through the tool or directly to the authors' e-mail. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was supported with funding from the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD), the  Office of the Secretary of Defense  (OSD), and the Defense Acquisition University (DAU). We wish to thank the members of the BPCh team, from DAU, FC- MD, CSC, and SSCI, for the many productive discussions that have improved this work. REFERENCES Basili, V.R, Caldiera, G. , & Rombach, H. D. (1994). Experience factory. In J. J. Marciniak (Ed. ),  Encyclopedia  of Software Engineering (Vol. 1, pp. 469-476). New York:  John Wiley  & Sons, Inc. Basili, V. , Zelkowitz, M. , McGarry, E, Page, J. , Waligora, S. , & Pajerski, R. (1995). SEL's software process improvement program. IEEE Software, 12(6), 83-87. Dangle, K. , Dwinnell, L. , Hickok, J. , ; Turner, R. (2005, May). Introducing the Department of Defense acquisition best practices clearinghouse. CrossTalk, 18(5), 4-5. Defense Acquisition University.Retrieved from http://bpch. dau. mil Delphi White Paper. (2002). Taxonomy  ; Content Classification–Market Milestone Report. Boston, MA: Delphi Group. Koennecker, A. , Jeffery, R. , & Low, G. (2000, April). Implementing an experience factory based on existing organizational knowledge. In Proceedings of the 2000  Austra lian Software Engineering Conference  (pp. 28-29), Canberra, ACT, Australia. Mendonca, M. , Seaman, C. , Basili, V. R. , & Kim, Y. M. (2001, June). A prototype experience management system for a software consulting organization.In Proceedings of the 13th  International Conference on Software Engineering  and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE). Ottawa, Canada. Schneider, K. , ; Schwinn, T. (2001, June). Maturing experience base concepts at DaimlerChrysler. Software Process-Improvement and Practice, 6(2), 85-96. Turner, R. , ; Shull, F. (2005, November). An empirical approach to best practice identification and selection: The U. S. Department of Defense acquisition best practices clearinghouse. In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering (ISESE  2005)(pp. 33-140), Noosa Heads, Australia. Mr. Raimund L. Feldmann is the technical lead for Knowledge and Experience Management at the Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering, MD (FC-M D). Before he joined FC-MD in 2004, Raimund participated in several technology transfer projects in Germany and was also involved in the development of the Virtual Software Engineering Competence Center (VSEK) portal, funded by the Department of Education and Research (bmb+f) of the German Federal Government, to offer up-to-date Software Engineering knowledge to subject matter experts. E-mail address: [email  protected] umd. edu) Mrs. Michele A. Shaw is a Scientist at the Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering. Michele supports clients implementing process improvement, measurement, and experience factory concepts. She has over 25 years of experience in Information Technology including software and service development, project management, quality assurance, client care and  subcontractor  management Ms Shaw holds a BS in Business from  University of Baltimore  and a masters in applied  behavioral science  from  Johns HopkinsUniversity. (E-mail address : [email  protected] edu) Dr. Forrest Shull is a senior scientist at the Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering, MD (FC-MD). He is project manager and member of technical staff for projects with clients that have included Fujitsu, Motorola, NASA, and the U. S. Department of Defense. He has also been lead researcher on grants from the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Air Force Research Labs, and NASA's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. (E-mail address: [email  protected] umd. edu)

Friday, November 8, 2019

Critically Analysed Global Tourism Market Terms Tourism Essay Example

Critically Analysed Global Tourism Market Terms Tourism Essay Example Critically Analysed Global Tourism Market Terms Tourism Essay Critically Analysed Global Tourism Market Terms Tourism Essay Today, the concern positions and growing have changed. Now, a companys vision and mission is non merely to gain net incomes but develop trade name image and wanting to be top in that concern. These desires make manner to spread out its concern globally merely after being a good local participant. For traveling planetary it needs to look at many facets and need to hold right scheme, feasibleness analysis and hazards analysis. Execution of program at the right clip, topographic point and market with right client can take to success. This study contains critically analysed planetary touristry market footings and rules effectual for any administration and different schemes to be adopted depend on state. E-commerce advantage, Furthermore footfalls to follow these schemes which would do it successful and different from its rivals. 2. Global Tourism Trend Tourism is of import and quickly turning industry in service sector. It contributes about 11 % of the entire universe s GDP ( Gross domestic merchandise ) and one of the highest among the service sector Fig1. Contribution to universe GDP ( WTTC, 2008 ) In twelvemonth 2008 international touristry reach 992 million up by 2 % from old twelvemonth and gross rise by 1.7 % i.e. US $ 944 billion while add-on of US $ 183 billion from international rider leads to US $ 1.1 trillion. The top states of visit along with gross grosss Fig2. Top states ( WTTC, 2008 ) Visitors travel for assorted grounds to cognize generic growing of touristry it s truly of import to cognize intent of visit Fig3. Purpose of visit ( WTTC, 2008 ) Harmonizing to Fiona Jeffery president of universe trade market and Redyouter touristry industry suffered reverse of 4 % i.e. 880 million in 2009. Due to planetary recognition crunch, rising prices, falling disposable income, increase fuel monetary value and swine grippe are major grounds. Still it claims growing of 3 to 4 % by 2010 and predict appraisal of 1.6 billion travelers by 2020. Furthermore it states that civilization, heritage and historical section of touristry will turn at a high rate in near future. ( Redyouter, 2010 ) , ( onecaribbean, 2008 ) Fig4. Tourist from 1950 to 2010 ( UNWTO, 2009 ) 3. Overview By part 3.1 UK Tourism United Kingdom is one of the major finishs of touristry. Furthermore it adds to the state s economic system, increases employment. In twelvemonth 2007, 123.45 million trips with disbursement ?21,238 million. While 2008 trips declined by 4.6 % i.e. 117.71million but disbursement was nt affected lowered by 0.62 % i.e. ?21,107million. This was due to economic lag, rising prices, increase fuel monetary value and hapless conditions during twelvemonth. But easy recovers as it is one of the major tourer attractive forces in universe. Fig5. Trips and Spending ( Visitbritain, 2008 ) UK has a assortment of attractive forces such as Amusement and subject Parkss Castle, Palaces A ; Stately places Zoo, Parks, Gardens and Safari Parkss Museums A ; Galleries Churchs, Cathedrals and Abbeys Landmarks A ; Historic sites Other attractive forces are Harrods, The Globe Theatre, British Library, Ruthin, Camden Market, Paddington station. The major tourer finishs located in UK are England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. However the popular topographic points are England and Scotland. While if we compare portion of the trips to the population distribution in topographic point England and Northern Ireland have less portion compared to Scotland and Wales. Fig6. Trips and Population ( Visitbritain, 2008 ) Every touristry trips have different intent behind it. This may change from individual to individual and metropolis to metropolis like: Holiday Trips 1-3 darks 4+more darks VFR ( Visiting friends and relations ) Business/work If we compare overall trips to UK, England and Scotland have more holiday trips compare Wales and Northern Ireland. Furthermore VFR and Business are major in England comparison to others Fig7. Purpose of visit ( Visitbritain, 2008 ) Furthermore it s truly of import to cognize sum spend by single differ upon the pick and services like good cordial reception, epicurean suites and first-class manner of travel. This sum besides varies from metropolis to metropolis as some of the topographic points are dearly-won due to their popularity. This cost is of import factor in touristry. Fig8. Spending by Purpose ( Visitbritain, 2008 ) Therefore we can see that England is major topographic point for vacations in UK. This involves the topographic points like East Midlands, East of England, South East England, South west England, North west England, North east England, Yorkshire and West Midlands. Fig9. England ( Visitbritain, 2008 ) In England no of tourer are attracted to East Midlands which consist topographic points like Derbyshire Leicestershire Lincolnshire Nottinghamshire Rutland 3.2 Nottingham touristry Nottingham is of import metropolis an unchallenged capital of East Midlands. It s been 9th largest topographic point in England in footings of travel and work. The population is about 260,000 where 3 million can be reached within hr thrust. More of import in footings of occupation creative activity it s the fastest turning metropolis in UK. Advantage is 120 stat mis from London and 50 stat mis from Birmingham. This makes it really convenient and easy to see Nottingham from these topographic points Nottingham has neer been off from history as memory of legendary hero Robin Hood along with its historic antagonist the sheriff of Nottingham. Other than that it has many other historical and new attractive forces such as: Nottingham palace and art gallery Sherwood Forest Wollaton park, Clumber park, Rufford state park, Colwick park and Victoria park The Galleries of justness, Lace market and Corner house Nottingham sphere and Nottingham Royal concert hall are celebrated for unrecorded music in UK The Roman Catholic cathedral, Anglican parish church, St. Mary the virgin, Greater churches group are Historic edifices ( enjoyengland, 2009 ) However 2009 councillorA Leon Unczur developed a committee to setup a universe category Robin Hood attractive force ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) Nottingham is said metropolis of caves, beneath houses, stores and offices 100s of caves exist some people are cognizant about this labyrinth construction. Nottingham has more semisynthetic caves than anyplace else in Britain. ( Cityofcaves, 2009 ) Fig10. Nottingham attractive forces ( enjoyengland, 2009 ) 4. UK Plague Political Political factors can hold a major consequence on concern and might even impact passing power of clients Political environment should be stable Government policies High Political support to touristry industry as it is one of the major turning industries in UK. Government positions on civilization, faith, historical memorials in state Encourage to increase touristry Government to keep and continue the historical attractive forces in the state Maintain peace in the state by being off from war and panic Economic The market the local and national economical construction needs to see long term. Interest rates Exchange rates of the state comparison to other major touristry topographic points Per capita income Inflation Economic growing in recent twelvemonth s GDP ( Gross domestic merchandise ) Taxes on concern Sociocultural Sociocultural affect concern and varies state to state. It s Important to cognize before doing any immense investing. Travelers have narrow mentality investing depends on pick, service comfort, intent Language, life manner, civilization drama of import function Easy manner to acquire visa to that state Peoples going expression for safety and wellness in 2009 touristry was severely affected by spread of swine grippe. Technological Technology plays a critical function and even helps to accomplish competitory border E-commerce growing Good substructure Super ferries and cruise ships for attractive force New land Bridgess and roads infinite touristry with engineering Easy cheque in and cheques out ( bized,2010 ) , ( halsbury,2009 ) 5. Footfalls Footfalls is little turning SME in historical Tourss concern with the vision History at your ain gait it s a household concern run by proprietor Mr. Roger and his married woman Judith. Company was started with two members studied from the nearby university and developed this concern. It s popular among the people who are enthusiastic about civilization and history. Isabella their girl is traveling to fall in concern. The concern was been set up 30 old ages ago and is rather successful. But is stagnated over a twosome of old ages 5.1 Current place The Business has grown up rather good and even the staff members have been increase to 15 full clip and 25 including partime. Mr. Roger is more involved in research and is a rather obstinate enterpriser and less bothered about the type of current tendency which concern demands. His manner of pulling client is by good quality services. He is loath to accept new thoughts and engineering. His selling schemes involves Booklets e.g. The Penguin history of 20th century and Discovering church architecture Airing unrecorded on local telecasting and negotiations about historical events Cds incorporating some historical research and events are used for selling Post answers to client feedbacks or snail mails ( said by Izzy ) Meanwhile Mrs Judith looks after the administrative portion of the concern. Her portion is rather nerve-racking due to miss of the staff and finally makes it hard to pull off things individual conveniently, while Roger is rather cognizant about it. Isabella girl of Roger and Judith returned home after working for six old ages as senior undertaking director in USA. While Max is the friend of Isabella who has degree in computing machine scientific discipline along with experience in cyberspace enabling and ecommerce as he has been a portion of a large air hose company in design of informations direction system. 5.2 Swot Strength Failing Family concern Personal relation affect determination Repute in concern More work burden Strong potency clients Lack staff Good research cognition Limited entree as no web site Customer positive feedback Lack cognition about international market Less competition as hard to prolong Loath to accept new thoughts and engineering Opportunities Menaces Explore new market Local and international rivals. New selling schemes Political barriers Innovate thoughts and bundles Maintain good will Premium monetary value due to repute and trade name image Loath to engineering may decelerate down concern Development of e-commerce Lose market portion 6. Porter s Generic schemes The competitory border be achieved with the aid of following schemes Fig 11: Porter s generic schemes ( mindtools, 2010 ) . Cost leading Strategy The company needs to keep medium cost and quality service Company should concentrate on addition market portion by take downing monetary value but still doing sensible net income because gross revenues have increased even when cost is cut down Due to strong monetary value competition new houses have trouble to last As clip alterations monetary values may worsen due to competition in such state of affairs company can keep its profitableness with aid of uninterrupted betterment Key point is company should cut down the cost of presenting merchandise and services while the cost paid the client may stay same Differentiation Scheme Differentiation scheme involves development of new thoughts and innovate services which more attractive than those of the rivals. Unique selling preposition ( USP ) can be achieved with the aid of its repute and quality of service over old ages which can assist them to bear down premium monetary value Effective gross revenues and publicity with e-commerce aid consumer to understand benefits of such offers while cost can be covered by bear downing premium monetary value Before old service loses demand new offer should be queue to keep the UPS ( alone merchandising preposition ) for company Focus scheme To concentrate on specific niche market this involves the clients like Leisure clients Business clients Independent travelers Package vacation shapers Specific age groups Offer services by understanding market demands and even run into client s demands Need to hold a proper expression on quality services and maintain healthy relationship with clients Continuous betterment in service and client feedback is truly of import Proper client focal point additions trueness and finally captures market and makes section less attractive for rivals ( mindtools, 2010 ) . 7. Selling Mix Marketing mix is combination of phases which needs proper planning and executing in order to accomplish success. It nevertheless includes construct of four P s Product, Place, Promotion and Price. ( Kotler, 2000 ) Fig 12: of import 7P s of selling Mix ( salesandmarketing,2009 ) Tourism industry merchandise is different from other it s non touchable. Product is service based for illustration experience of stay, breakfast, repast, wakeup call and visit to local tourer attractive forces are signifier of services which are termed as touristry merchandises Merchandise Addition of properties to the merchandise such as sole hotel, epicurean room, and good conveyance and conference installations with less monetary value within bundle which individually are expensive this benefits client to purchase such merchandise and additions satisfaction, relaxation, geographic expedition and acquisition Monetary value Monetary value is of import factor and is justice by quality of service, merchandise and trade name go manus in manus. Most of branded merchandises are ever high monetary value so original cost. Customer is ready to pay more hoping of some particular services. This psychological advantage can assist concern to distinguish between the bundles offered at the same clip by others and makes worth paying to the trade name image merchandise. Topographic point Distribution topographic point of merchandise is of import. There are two ways Direct distribution: the company takes full control of merchandise take it to market and promote in that peculiar topographic point e.g. trade with co-corporate and possible clients Indirect distribution: allow some little bureaus do local engagement and happen the possible clients in return can give some committee. Procedure Tourism concern involve many procedures such as planning, disposal, selling, preparation, distribution, schemes, enlisting, buying and on clip bringing. Need to do certain all procedures are good organised and run swimmingly in instance of job it should be rectified rapidly Peoples In touristry industry staff covering with clients should be first-class with words of oral cavity and advance excellence service. This can be achieved by preparation and wages system for work. Discussion among staff members can even assist to better merchandise and services. Focuss on type of client are leisure, concern, independent, holiday shapers and specific age groups. Physical grounds Evidence can be positive feedback from possible clients affecting quality of service and trades that can be publish or can be posted on the web site. This finally would pull more people and add value to trade name image. Promotion Promotion is of import facet of concern. The best manner of communicating channel should be selected which could make multitudes with clear aims of the concern. most of import is channel should be cost effectual. ( Capegateway, 2005 ) 7.1 E-commerce Technology Internet with E-commerce has been proved to be the best and consequence channel for touristry industry. Tourism is information based industry. E-commerce changed position of client Fig 13: Tourism E-commerce Model ( Si-quing liu,2006 ) Customer can easy see the topographic point of visit Engagements and payment can be easy done It increases efficiency and reduces the cost Marketing through cyberspace is easy, effectual and attractive Tourist have multiple options on bundles Customer can come in their budget and best circuit within budget appears with individual chink ( sole characteristic ) It can easy make the multitudes around the Earth finally company is branded internationally ( Si-quing liu, 2006 ) Fig 14: Internet gross revenues ( HVS, 2010 ) 8. Recommendations E-commerce engineering can be integrated in footfalls concern with aid of Max. This would present a new platform and give rise to concern. As Europe and USA is immense market. It can spread out their concern with aid of Max as he is born and have household in Italy while Izzy can acquire some co-corporate clients through her contacts in USA where she worked for six old ages Massive Selling can be done with aid web site and is cost effectual, However all booklets, research and cadmium s and feedback from valuable client can be uploaded on web site which can be read by people around the Earth Roger can even be on chirrup, upload picture on youtube, make communities on societal web sites like facebook, orkut and can be portion of web site linkedin.com where 60million people exchange thoughts, information and chances Footfalls can be spouse with STC ( sustainable touristry standards ) which helps to develop rules of touristry even ASTA ( American society of travel agents ) and Expedia which is UK no 1 high traffic touristry web site is besides portion of it ( alexa,2008 ) , ( sustainabletourismcriteria,2009 ) 9. Decision

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Deforesation essays

Deforesation essays Imagine a place where there are more kinds of plants and animals than anyone has ever seen, a place filled with mysteries and marvels, surprising sights and strange sounds. Such a place really exists. It is called a tropical rainforest, and it is found in many countries around the world. Tropical rainforests are where you come across armies of ants, bird-eating spiders, giant earthworms, and squawking parrots, along with snakes gliding through the air. How exciting it would be to explore. Such a thing could only be possible that is, if there are any tropical rain forests left to explore on earth! Many people all over the world believe that the tropical rainforests are in danger of being destroyed. Deforestation is a major global problem with serious consequences to the planet. The consequences of deforestation have negative effects on the climate, biodiversity, and the atmosphere, along with threatening the cultural and physical survival of indigenous peoples. The effects ar e too great to continue destroying the forests. These implications as a result have encouraged public outcry. Concerns have since grown to include other forest types as well. Congress has considered a variety of legislation to stem the tide of increasing deforestation and the United States has supported a number of bilateral and multilateral initiatives to assist other countries in managing their forest resources. In addition, the issue of deforestation has acquired increasing attention in international arenas, which has translated into a maze-like array of programs, principles, and policies regarding forests. In this world, there are tons of tropical forests in existence, ranging from the rain forests of the Amazon to the dry woodlands of Southern Africa, from the coastal mangroves of Southeast Asia to the alpine forests in the Andean highlands of South America. Deforestation is the permanent loss of forests to other land uses such as agriculture...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Nationalism and Development in the Third World Essay

Nationalism and Development in the Third World - Essay Example Third world food production could be enhanced by the techniques of crop handling, pest control and storage and reduce the annual loss of 10% on food production in these nations. Sustainable farming has helped to augment the yield in food in third world nations (Science Daily, 2006). Sustainable farming practices require less water which is very important given the prediction that by 2025 the third world countries would face physical or economic water shortages. To avoid further economic disasters, IMF was set up as public lenders after the World War II. IMF supplies member nations with money to overcome short-term credit crunches. IMF maintains â€Å"structural adjustment policies† (SAP) for lending money to the member nations. It was supposed to help the third world develop and get out of debt but by early 1990s most of the third world nations went deeper into debt and remained underdeveloped (Rowden 2001). The SAP only reduces the state’s role in their economic development process and forces them to eliminate or lower the trade barriers or tariffs, reduces subsidies to the businesses and they are not allowed to privatize public utilities. They also have to eliminate their controls over currency and capital. Thus third-world good are not sold in the developed markets. There were suggestions that debts of third world countries should be cancelled but this does not resolve the issue as in future these countries may still need loans. Third world countries are aware that information is power as internet is used for almost everything today. They are aware that digital technology can have an impact on the flow of investment, goods and global services in the market place. They are calling for the establishment of a new international order of information (Mitchell, 2002). Without a substantial change in the system of disseminating information, their development remains in jeopardy. Cultures will erode and become homogenized as the power of media to

Friday, November 1, 2019

Social Psychology - Exprerimental Psychology Essay

Social Psychology - Exprerimental Psychology - Essay Example Experimental psychology, Patrick McGhee has decribed as the most dominant form of psychology in north America and Europe. Whether or not this dominance is desirable, secure or important is another issue. In the perspective of experimental social psychology, the most scientifically efficient, intellectually rigorous method for understanding human social behaviour makes for the making of three assumptions viz: Experimental psychology can be viewed as the first of the three individual "visions" of social psychology. This "vision" when applied in to the understanding of Liv Ullman does not really explain anything about her success as a film star, but then goes to make us understand her person to the point of why she did what. When put under experimental psychology, the social psychology of Liv Ullman can be understood. The reasons for her being a committed UNICEF goodwill ambassador who has also travelled wide for the organisation can be explained. She is Norweigian, born in Tokyo and has a half Swedish daughter with Swedish Ingmar Bergman. Her vast travel experience may have contributed to her being multi-lingual which may have been useful to her in her many travels across the globe in furtherance of her humanitarian service as a UNICEF goodwill ambassasdor. The fact that she has continued in th... The fact that she has continued in the movie industry as a director (even after retiring as an actress) is a confirmation of the experimental psychology. She will definitely be more comfortable in the movie industry than any other industry. Her role in the movie Scenes from a Marriage, which turned her into a feminist and cultural icon in the 1970s and also placed her as one of the most respected actress of her time was directed by Ingmar Bergman. The position the film put her may have influenced her going into humanitarian service. Her cross-cultural background- born in Tokyo; raised in Norway; married and worked with a Swede, whom she has a child for; and now married to an American- have all contributed to explain her many travels on humanitarian purposes as a UNICEF goodwill ambassador. Looking at this first "vision" of social psychology, it can be said that in understanding Liv Ullman, it is useful. But there are questions that it does not exactly provide answers to. Like how she became so good an actress and so much critical acclaim that has not yet been seen since the 70s. Her sense of security, even when she is not with the ones she loves, or in strange land have not been explained using this "vision". The second "vision" is humanistic and experiential. What this seeks to do is to blend the study of personal and social life in the actualities of lived experience. It tries to look at the lived world and the behavoiur of an individual to the experiences of this world. This vision regards people's experience and the meanings they attach to their actions and that of others. It believes behaviour has to be interpreted to be made meaningful. Thus the behaviour which is objectively observable and analysable is