Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Career statement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Career statement - Essay Example I shall have to develop vast knowledge of the latest means, advanced tools, and strategies for efficient sales and marketing of products as well as of the operations involved in deriving different kinds of chemicals and byproducts from crude oil in the next five years. In addition to that, the skills and abilities I will need to develop in the next five years include presentation skills and technological skills including developing competence in the latest software employed in sales and marketing. I will have gained a lot of knowledge about my field at the point of completion of my undergraduate degree. However, I shall continue developing my knowledge by getting the Master’s degree in Marketing. Besides, I shall keep attending workshops and conferences and will also be in search of good short courses to refresh my knowledge as well as learn the latest trends in the use of steel in the industry. These workshops, conferences, and short courses will also help me acquire the need ed skills and abilities in addition to the practical experience of working I shall get through working in the field. There is a lot of margin for growth in the both steel and petrochemical industries. There is no dearth of organizations looking for professionals to fill these positions across the world. Construction and oil exploration never goes out of trend and it is safe to assume that I shall easily find job anywhere in the world any time. I would most likely go to a graduate school after completing my undergraduate degree.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Dualism and idealistic monism Essay Example for Free

Dualism and idealistic monism Essay In philosophy and more specifically metaphysics, dualism has been defined as the belief that two fundamental and incompatible types of things that make up the universe; idealistic monism argues instead that the universe is made up of just one thing, and that is the realm of ideas or the mind. Hence, if one were to very simplistically state the difference between dualism and idealistic monism, one may argue that dualism stands for the concept of body versus mind whereas idealistic monism stands for just the mind as being the sole component of everything. Monism in general implies the belief that the Universe is not made up of diametrically opposite concepts or entities, but just one thing that can have many manifestations but in its essential nature, remains the same. While idealistic monism argues that all is made up the mind or ideas, materialistic monism states that only the physical realm makes up everything, and the mental can be ultimately reduced to the physical as well. Plato argued that there exists a realm of ideas where there are forms of ideas that the Universe commonly reflects, and that these immutable ideas are superior and immortal as opposed to the transient objects themselves. Thus, he argued the idea of something is more real than the thing itself. He also said that the mind is identical with the soul, but that the soul pre-exists and survives the body. Later, Berkeley and Kant added to the discourse of idealism by agreeing that all the manifestations of all that happens in the physical world have its root in the mind and in the realm of ideas. The dualists’ argument of all reality being divided between matter and mind seems perhaps the most natural, at least at first glance, because in the physical world the distinctions between the mind and matter are so clearly distinguishable. Human beings tend to see the two as separate entities and see how one might function even as the other is unable to, in case of illness or injuries. Also, through the ages, folklore and religion have always made a clear distinction between two forces that govern the workings of the universe: good and evil, benevolent and malevolent, mortal and eternal. Thus, it is easy to understand why these arguments may be considered legitimate. However, dualism talks about a very extreme universe where there don’t seem to be any grey areas that merge these extreme concepts of benevolence and malevolence or body and mind. Monism attributes oneness in the entire Universe. The proponents of monism have included Parmenides, Melissus, and Spinoza and more recently, Horgan and Potrc. They hold that there really is just one thing that makes everything up, and that it is extremely complex in the number of variations it can take. Idealistic monism stands for the concept that this â€Å"one thing† is the consciousness or the realm of the mind, from where everything else is conceived and thus given physical shape. If the mind had not thought up something, it would not exist in either the mental or the physical plane. Thus, whatever is physical can be brought fundamentally to the mental realm and said to have originated from there. At the most basic level, therefore, all reality for the idealist monist originates in the mind in the form of an idea, and this idea is more real than any physical structures that it might give birth to, because it is eternal and cannot ever die or cease to be. In this way, ideas form the entire universe and will continue to do so as generations of humans live and die. I think that idealism is more plausible than dualism. Firstly, I do not agree with the dualist extremes that are always incompatible and as a sum of opposites that make up the universe. I do not think the universe can be explained as simply as that, because at many points these two extremes do seem to converge and coexist in a way so as not to seem wholly incompatible. It does seem more plausible to me that the realm of the mind is more â€Å"real† than anything else because ideas are eternal and make up the world. Thus, I tend to agree with the monist viewpoint – about a world that is complex but is made up of the realm of ideas that are immutable. Monistic philosophy seems to embrace the existence of seemingly contradictory things in a way that is much more accepting and broader than the dualistic view.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Essay on the Victorian View of Dover Beach -- Arnold Dover Beach Essay

The Victorian View of Dover Beach  Ã‚     Ã‚   As the narrator of Matthew Arnold's "Dover Beach" looks out his window, he sees a beautiful world of nature: the sea and the cliffs under the glow of the moon. Describing this scene to his lover, he invites her to "[c]ome to the window" so that she might see it too (6). However, it is not just a beautiful beach that the speaker wishes his lover to see. Rather, he wants her to see Dover Beach as an ironic image that is a representation of his whole world. Likewise Matthew Arnold wants his reader to recognize the speaker and scene as a portrait of Arnold's own world and feelings. What Arnold is writing about is not a poetic fiction: it is a reflection of the changes he sees in his world due to industrialism, science, and a rationalism that opposes traditional religious belief. While Arnold uses Dover Beach to represent this modern world of change, he creates a speaker to represent the tension that the poet and his fellow Victorians feel: while living in a modern world, they long for the great ages of the past. Like Arnold, the speaker feels isolated from the world around him: he looks out the window and "sighs for lost palaces beneath the sea" (Dahl 36). Initially, the beach that Arnold's speaker describes seems serene, calm, and peaceful. This is the Romantic world that the speaker (and Arnold) wants to live in. However, for Arnold the modern world can be peaceful only if natural order and the authority of social institutions can be maintained. Arnold's recognition of the futile illusion of such stability soon overcomes the sense of tranquility with which the poem opens. As the speaker begins to contemplate the scene and listens to the pebbles grating with the waves, an "... ...s the apparent pleasure offered by Dover Beach in the beginning. However, both the calmness and the violence of the beach, both the pleasure and the despair of the speaker, are true to the Victorian consciousness. Arnold and his speaker want the world to be one of peace and tranquility, but they cannot help but see its reality. This duality dramatizes the conflicted temperament of the Victorians. What Dover Beach as a place symbolizes to the narrator of the poem, "Dover Beach" as a poem expresses for Arnold and his Victorian audience. Works Cited Arnold, Matthew. "Dover Beach." 1867. A Pocketful of Poems. Ed. David Madden. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace, 1996. x. Dahl, Curtis. "The Victorian Wasteland." College English 16 (1955): 341-47. Rpt. in Victorian Literature: Modern Essays in Criticism. Ed. Austin Wright. New York: Oxford UP, 1961. 32-40.   

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Our Mutual Friend

Wider Reading Books Research: Name: Our Mutual Friend Author: Charles Dickens Synopsis: The multiple plots of Our Mutual Friend, Dickens's last complete novel, twine around the miser John Harmon's legacy of profitable heaps of refuse (â€Å"dust†). Harmon dies and leaves the dustheap operation to his estranged son John, on the condition that he marries Bella Wilfer, a young woman unknown to him. When a body found in the Thames is believed to be the younger Harmon, travelling home to receive his inheritance, the dustheaps descend instead to Harmon's servant Noddy Boffin (â€Å"The Golden Dustman†).Boffin and his wife respond to their new status by hiring Silas Wegg, a â€Å"literary man with a wooden leg† to teach Boffin to read; arranging to adopt an orphaned toddler from his poor great-grandmother; and bringing the socially ambitious Bella Wilfer into their home, where she is watched and evaluated by John Rokesmith, a mysterious young man employed as Boffin's se cretary. Rokesmith is actually John Harmon, who has survived betrayal and attempted murder and is living incognito so that he can observe Bella.Boffin's negative transformation by his wealth, Bella's moral awakening as she witnesses the changes wealth produces in Boffin and in herself, and the developing love relationship between Rokesmith and Bella form one key sub-plot. Another is the romance between gentlemanly idler Eugene Wrayburn and Lizzie Hexam, the daughter of the waterman who finds the drowned body. Class differences and the obsessive love and jealousy of schoolmaster Bradley Headstone threaten their relationship, but they are finally married with the help of the crippled dolls' dressmaker Jenny Wren.The smaller plots that interweave these sensation/romance narratives comment on the hypocrisy of fashionable life (â€Å"Podsnappery†) and the destruction of the family lives of both rich and poor by an industrialized, materialistic society. Characters: John Harmon, Bel la Wilfer, Noddy Boffin, Mrs Henrietta Boffin, Lizzie Hexam, Charley Hexam, Eugene Wrayburn. Themes: One of the most prevalent symbols in Our Mutual Friend is that of the River Thames, which becomes part of one of the major themes of the novel, rebirth and renewal.Water is seen as a sign of new life, used by churches during the sacrament of Baptism as a sign of purity and a new beginning. In Our Mutual Friend, it has the same meaning. Characters like John Harmon and Eugene Wrayburn end up in the waters of the river, and come out reborn as new men. Wrayburn emerges from the river on his deathbed, but is ready to marry Lizzie to save her reputation. Of course, he surprises everyone, including himself, when he survives and goes on to have a loving marriage with Lizzie.John Harmon also appears to end up in the river through no fault of his own, and when Gaffer pulls his â€Å"body† out of the waters, he adopts the alias of John Rokesmith. This alias is for his own safety and peac e of mind; he wants to know that he can do things on his own, and does not need his father’s name or money to make a good life for himself. [29] Throughout Our Mutual Friend, Dickens uses many descriptions that relate to water.Some critics refer to this as â€Å"metaphoric overkill,† and indeed there are numerous images described by water that have nothing to do with water at all. [30] Phrases such as the â€Å"depths and shallows of Podsnappery,† [31] and the â€Å"time had come for flushing and flourishing this man down for good† [31] show Dickens’s use of watery imagery, and help add to the descriptive nature of the book. Historical Background: Our Mutual Friend was published in nineteen monthly numbers in the fashion of many earlier Dickens novels and for the first time since Little Dorrit (1855–7).A Tale of Two Cities (1859) and Great Expectations (1860–1) had been serialized in Dickens's weekly magazine All the Year Round. Dicke ns remarked to Wilkie Collins that he was â€Å"quite dazed† at the prospect of putting out twenty monthly parts after more recent weekly serial. Our Mutual Friend was the first of Dickens's novels not illustrated by Hablot Browne, with whom he had collaborated since The Pickwick Papers (1836–7).Dickens instead opted for the younger Marcus Stone and, uncharacteristically, left much of the illustrating process to his discretion. After suggesting only a few slight alterations for the cover, for instance, Dickens wrote to Stone: â€Å"All perfectly right. Alterations quite satisfactory. Everything very pretty† Stone's encounter with a taxidermist named Willis provided the basis for Dickens's Mr. Venus, after Dickens had indicated he was searching for an uncommon occupation (â€Å"it must be something very striking and unusual†) for the novel.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Qatar’s Struggle to Reduce Traffic Accidents

QATAR’S STRUGGLE TO REDUCE TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Submitted To: Dr. Michael Long Date: January 25, 2006 Date: Sunday, January 25, 2006 To:Dr. Michael Long Instructor CM 2300: Report Writing Subject: Formal Report on Traffic Accidents in Qatar I am submitting the attached report, entitled Qatar’s Struggle to Reduce Traffic Accidents, in accordance with the requirements for the CM2300 Report Writing course. The report covers background material concerning traffic accidents and its implications for society. Traffic accidents are considered one of the most important reasons of death in the Gulf.This paper examines possible practical approaches Qatar may consider, or is considering, in efforts to reduce the increasing number of traffic accidents. This paper discusses various aspects of public transportation problems in Doha, Qatar, and presents a proposal for reducing the risks, as well as penalizing drivers who are consistently involved in accidents. Research for this assignment was completed largely through the use of Internet where government publications and newspaper articles were easily accessible. Sincerely, TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 0 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 1. 1 Thesis Statement†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5 1. 2 Background†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5 1. 2. 1 Road Traffic Accidents†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦6 1. 2. 2 Fatality Rates†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7 1. 2. 3 Traffic Congestion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 12 2. 0 Causes. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 14 2. 1 Construction Boom†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 14 2. 2 Careless Driving†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦14 2. 3 Stress†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦15 3. 0 Effects†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 16 3. 1 Increased Insurance Rates†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦16 3. 2 Increased Fatality Rates†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦16 4. 0 Problems of Reducing Traffic Accidents †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦. 17 5. 0 Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 18 5. 1 Future Plans from the Government†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 18 5. 2 Recommendations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦21 6. 0 References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦23 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1: Graph†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 8 Figure 2: Graph†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9 Figure 3: G raph†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 10 Figure 4: Table†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦11 Figure 5: Road Accident†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 Figure 6: Installation of Radar†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦19 Figure 7: Installed Radar†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦. 20 SUMMARY The purpose of this report is to identify the reasons why traffic accidents are so high in this region of the world, and to determine the possible impact that they can have on society and humanity. This report discusses the causes and effects of traffic accidents in Qatar and discusses possible solutions to minimize them. After examining specific data, it is evident that traffic accidents account for the most number of deaths in Qatar. They continue to rise and pose a threat to society.In order for Qatar to reduce this menace, the following recommendations have been suggested: (1) Public education and awareness, (2) Dedicated traffic controlling systems, (3) Penalizing drivers who are consistently involved in accidents, (4) Installation of radars throughout the major highways in Qatar, and (5) Increasing the fees on fines for breaking the traffic law INTRODUCTION Traffic accidents are not only a serious problem in Qatar, but all over the world. Countries in the Wes tern Europe, North America and the Middle East have acknowledged the fact that road accidents are a major cause of death and injury.While some people think that traffic accidents are not a serious problem today, consider these statistics. In 2002, while the death rate in Qatar due to cancer was only 10. 6%, the mortality rate due to traffic accidents stood at a whopping 40%, according to Ministry of Public Health statistics. (Al Binali, 2004). I was shocked when I discovered that in Great Britain, over ? 1 billion is spent each year on a wide range of road safety measures. (Jacobs, 1986) 1. 1 THESIS STATEMENT High construction activity, poor driver education, inefficient policing, and the roundabout system are the causes of Doha’s soaring accident problems.Without a proper traffic management system in place, traffic accidents will continue to rise in Qatar. 1. 2 BACKGROUND The following three sections provide background information on traffic accidents, beginning with the his tory of road traffic accidents and fatality rates, followed by how traffic congestion is increasing the problem. 1. 2. 1 ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are increasingly being recognized as a threat to society and the people of Qatar. Qatar, which drives most of it economy on oil, has a very high amount of vehicles on its roads.Due to the construction boom, there has been a high influx of immigrants and workers, resulting in an increase in vehicle numbers, accompanied by regularly expanding road constructions. Previous studies have shown that fatality rates in Qatar are much higher than in the developing countries. The number of accident casualties in Qatar has risen to 40,000 per annum, which is a 17% increase in the number of casualties for 2004 compared to those of 2003; 90% of such casualties are linked to road traffic accidents. (Al Musleh, 2005). Let’s take a look at a case.On March 20, 2003, Sugathadasa Atapattu, 56, was taking a stroll after dinne r in downtown Doha when he was knocked down by a speeding vehicle. Atapattu was taken to hospital where he lay unconscious for three months. He regained consciousness later but remained bed-ridden and lost his speech. His son came here and took him back home late last year after he spent about eight months in the hospital. At home too, he remains bed-ridden. (Pandit, 2004) You can imagine the impact on Atapattu’s life just because of one uneducated careless driver. Atapattu might be bed-ridden all his life, for no mistake of his own.He was just taking a walk and got hit. What did he do to cause this accident? Nothing, but he still has to bear the consequences all his life. 1. 2. 2 FATALITY RATES Figure 1 shows the fatality rates per 10,000 vehicles licensed. As you can observe, developing countries such as Ethiopia, Nigeria and Kenya have the highest fatality rates. Qatar approximately has a fatality rate of 20 per 10000 vehicles Figure 2 uses an alternative approach and show s the fatality rates per 10,000 persons. Using this measure of death rate, a completely different order of ranking is obtained.As you can clearly observe, Qatar is on the top of the order of ranking. Poor countries such as Ethiopia, India, Niger and Pakistan now appear at the bottom of the order of ranking. Figure 3 shows the relationship between fatality rate (per 10000 vehicles) and vehicle ownership in developed and developing countries. It is clearly observed that as the number of vehicles increase, the number of fatalities decrease. This is a very converse scenario to what one would think. One would think that as number of vehicles increase, number of fatalities should increase.But, this is not the case because we forget to take into fact the population increase of cars and its relation to the number of accidents. As the population of cars increases, the risk of accidents decreases because there is no space for a driver to drive fast and cause accidents. Therefore, number of fa talities decrease, as observed. http://www. transport-links. org/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_603_PA1164_1986. pdf http://www. transport-links. org/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_603_PA1164_1986. pdf http://www. transport-links. rg/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_603_PA1164_1986. pdf http://www. psychology. nottingham. ac. uk/staff/dec/references/Bener(2005)%20-%20 Advances%20in%20TranStudies. pdf Figure 4 shows a comparison of road accident fatalities in 2 developed countries UK and USA; and 2 developing countries UAE and Qatar, in the year 2000. The table lays out the number of motor vehicle deaths and the number of cars in each country. It also shows the death rates per 100,000 population and per 100,000 vehicles. Qatar has the second highest fatality rates after the UAE.But both developing countries have generally higher death rates than the developed countries. 1. 2. 3 TRAFFIC CONGESTION Road conditions are generally better in most Gulf states than o ther developing countries, but dangerous driving is common especially on highways. As a result, fatality rates due to traffic accidents are much higher here than other developing countries when compared with vehicle ownership. Most families in the more developed countries own their own car. The car gives people greater mobility and improves their access to places where they work, shop, are educated or find recreation.However, it is the widespread use of the car that is increasing traffic congestion in most cities. It is one of the most serious transport issues relating to cities all over the world. It is a recent problem in Doha but is much less worse than traffic problems in cities like Tokyo or Beijing. Insufficient transport systems and natural increase have made Qatar’s traffic problems one of the worst in the Gulf. Roads have been built long back, at a time when population was very low. As population is increasing, roads are becoming less capable to contain high amount o f cars.They are not designed for the volume of traffic today. Accidents and traffic jams are very often seen on roundabouts and traffic lights (See Figure 5). Figure 5: A photograph of an accident at the Toyota junction. [pic] http://www. gulf-times. com CAUSES The following three sections provide detailed information about some causes of traffic accidents. 2. 1 CONSTRUCTION BOOM The construction boom in Qatar has led to many problems in the traffic scenario of Qatar. Regular road blocks and diversions are seen everywhere, resulting in traffic snarls. When a road is blocked, all cars are diverted to another road.That road may not be able to cope up with such a high number of cars. Sometimes, cars are filled on roads from one junction to another, blocking routes for other cars on the junction. This results in absolute mayhem and chaos. Everyone wants to reach office or drop their kids to school on time. So, they take upon themselves, to swerve through traffic as they deem correct. Th ey enter roads which have no entry signs, they cut through traffic by driving in the parking lanes or they drive on the footpaths. This causes major traffic accidents where most of the time more than one car is involved.I have seen 3 accidents at the same time, on just 1 stretch of road, which led to staggeringly high amount of traffic. Basically, one thing leads to another. 2. 2 CARELESS DRIVING Careless driving is identified as the most important factor in traffic accidents, accounting for over 35% of all incidents, while excessive speed is known as the second most common cause. (Bener, 2005). People who drive carelessly and don’t abide by the traffic laws are a nuisance on the roads. They don’t stop on traffic lights, pedestrian crossings or on road stop signs. They constantly change lanes and confuse others as well as themselves.This causes confusion to others and they might bang their car into another. 2. 3 STRESS Everyone is stressed in life. If someone has finan cial problems, another has family problems. A husband has just had a fight with his wife or a youngster has just broken up with his girlfriend. A parent is under stress to get his child to school on time. In all these situations, the driver is driving under so much stress that he cannot give full concentration on the road. I would like to include here an example about myself. Recently, my father died an untimely death due to a cardiac arrest. days after this incident, I went out to buy some grocery nearby and I had a terrible accident. I hit a car and injured the other driver. I recall no memory of seeing that car or of the accident. All I know is that I hit a car. This was all due to the stress and tension I was under. I was so stressed about the problems in my life that I wasn’t concentrating on the road at all; therefore I didn’t notice this car approaching me and hit it head-on. There are several cases out there like these, where stress overcomes the driver and the y lose control of the situation. It is known as one of the major causes of accidents in recent times.Stress accounts for an estimated 12. 8m lost working days a year in Britain and costs businesses at least $4bn. It is difficult to measure how much of this can be put down to commuting, but in one study 44% of drivers named rush-hour traffic as the most stressful aspect of their lives. (Hall, 2006) EFFECTS 3. 1 INCREASED INSURANCE RATES A whole lot of insurance companies have increased their insurance rates and the amount of paperwork, due to the alarming rise in the number of accidents. Some insurance companies even had to shut down some of their branches, because they couldn’t bear the losses.The money an insurance provider has to dole out in claims for death and injuries as well as vehicle repairs in accidents run into millions of riyals. One such insurance provider said it lost QR2. 2m in the first half of 2005 due to compensation given in cases of accident-related deaths and injuries. (, 2005). So, just because of mistakes of others, innocent drivers have to face higher insurance rates. 3. 2 INCREASED FATALITY RATES Statistics suggest there were 840 road accidents in January 2003 with the number going up to 1,173 in January this year.In February 2003, road accidents totalled 675 but in February 2005, the figure reached 1,086. (, 2005). As the number of accidents is rising, the number of fatalities is rising also. Many people are dying because of traffic accidents. Some die due to mistakes of others too. A speeding car may hit a pedestrian and kill them for no mistake of their own. In 2004, 165 people died in road accidents with 79 per cent of the victims being in the age group of 11- 40 and 35 per cent being pedestrians. In 2005, 125 people were killed on the roads. (Bibbo, 2005) PROBLEMS OF REDUCING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTSProblems of reducing traffic accidents are many. Firstly, youngsters between the age group of 16-24 have a tendency to drive very fast . It is an ego problem. They think they have to drive fast to look cool and show off. I can say this because it partly relates to me. No matter how much they are taught, they will continue to drive fast. Even though public awareness is apparent, it is not enough, because they do not truly realize the consequences. Even if they are involved in an accident, they shrug it off as a mistake from the past and continue doing the same, until an accident does not take their life.Only if they can practically see the effect of some horrible accidents, and only if they themselves go through a rough time, then they will realize what their actions can do to society. Secondly, punishments are not enough. There are only meagre fines on breaking the traffic law. Other than that, there are no other punishments given to troublesome drivers. That’s why no one understands the problem because for them it is not a problem at all. No one goes around killing people because they know the punishment fo r murder is death. Therefore, if punishments are increased for breaking traffic rules, then they will realize it as a problem hey should not cause and will become cautious drivers. Lastly, fines are too low. There is only a meagre fine of QR200 on breaking the speed limit. Local Qataris are very rich and they get off by paying small fines. Paying money is not a big deal for them. You can see cars with 10 fine stickers on them, because they don’t care. They can either pay it off from their large bank accounts, or call their friends in the traffic police and get the fines cancelled. CONCLUSION No matter how much one tries to avoid an accident, it is evident that when an accident has to happen, it will happen.If one knew that an accident is going to take place then surely one would avoid it. But, what is in our hands is our safety. We can not avoid accidents but at least we can make sure that we are properly prepared for the situation. 5. 1 FUTURE PLANS FROM THE GOVERNMENT The M inistry has said that Qatar plans to spend over QR1bn over the next three years for the expansion and improvement of its road network, keeping in the view the rapid pace of urbanisation and population growth. Their main concern will be on replacing all major roundabouts in and outside Doha with modern traffic junctions.Tenders for the TV, Midmac, Al Ahli and Passport roundabouts have been released around 3 years ago and work has already started on some and some are already finished. I think this is appropriate because all the above roundabouts are the very congested roundabouts of Doha. Only congested roundabouts should be changed into traffic junctions because it costs a lot of money to change a roundabout into a traffic signal. Previously announced plans of constructing five flyovers and interchange overpasses in and around Doha to cope with increasing volumes of traffic by the start of the new millennium are underway.There are five interchange overpasses in Qatar at present. New radar systems are also being installed to catch drivers jumping traffic lights or speeding (See Figures 6 & 7). Plans are afoot to install 101 radars and cameras all over Qatar to check traffic violations and accidents. 53 mobile radar cabins and 48 cameras are to be installed at traffic signals over the next six months, which would go a long way in ensuring road safety. (Al Malki, 2005) Figure 6: This is a photograph of traffic policemen setting up radar surveillance equipment by the side of roads in Doha. [pic] http://www. ulf-times. com Figure 7: This is a new radar camera installed to detect those who jump traffic lights at the Ramada junction in Doha. [pic] http://www. gulf-times. com Several amendments to the traffic law will now impose stiffer penalties including jail terms on unscrupulous motorists. Violators of the traffic rules will face fines from QR6,000 up to QR12,000 and jail terms between one and six months. Driving without a valid number plate, without a licence or e ngaging in racing and jumping traffic signals, will also be considered serious violations which will carry a fine.The measures are the last in a number of initiatives by governmental bodies that aim to curb the death toll on the road. (Bibbo, 2005) The law prescribes a fine of QR200 for a motorist using a mobile phone while driving. A hands-free set can, however, be used. A similar fine is to be imposed on motorists watching TV while driving. People making children under 10 years of age sit in the front of a vehicle are to be fined QR200 too. (Al Dosri, 2005) 5. 2 RECOMMENDATIONS A fully computerized traffic control system needs to be put in place; a system which automatically notes out drivers that are a danger to society.Radars have to be put in place, not only on signals, but also on roads, to catch drivers driving above speed limits. Any driver caught 3 times on radar should have his license revoked for a temporary period. Drivers who are often a cause of accidents should be bla cklisted and monitored. These are some ways accidents can be reduced. Wearing a seat belt while driving, concentrating totally on driving and nothing else, and following all driving regulations will ensure our safety. In any case of an accident, police and medical authorities have to be prepared also.We can ensure this by following few of these ideas: 1. Training police and medical staff in first aid and handling traffic injuries. 2. Equipping ambulances with state-of-the-art equipment. 3. Improving hospital emergency rooms and facilities 4. Training medical staff to handle injuries at a crash site as well as in hospitals 5. Improving coordination between police, emergency response teams and medical services Movement of heavy duty vehicles should be restricted on the roads to minimize traffic accidents. The traffic police have advanced the morning peak hours by half an hour to start from 6am, instead of 6. 0am now. The morning peak hours would be from 6am to 8am, and in the afternoo n from 12. 30pm to 2pm, same as now. During the peak hours, movement of heavy-duty vehicles and machinery will be banned from city roads. (Marafia, 2004) This will come as a benefit to office-going public and schoolchildren. REFERENCES Al Binali, D. H. (2004). Roads take higher toll than cancer: Minister. The Peninsula. Retrieved Jan 02, 2006, from http://www. thepeninsulaqatar. com/Display_news. asp? section=local_news&month=june2004&file=local_news2004062023618. xml Jacobs, G. D. (1986, Jul 14).Road accident fatality rates. Retrieved Dec 24, 2005, from http://www. transport-links. org/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_603_ PA1164_1986. pdf Al Musleh, D. A. (2005). Road traffic accidents, second killer after cardiovascular disease. Retrieved Dec. 26, 2005, from http://www. hmc. org. qa/enews. asp? id=216 Pandit, M. (2004). Lankan accident victim gets QR562,000 in damages . The Peninsula. Retrieved Jan 06, 2006, from http://www. thepeninsulaqatar. com/Display_ news. asp? secti on=local_news&month=july2004&file=local_news20040712325 29. xml Bener, A. & Crundall, D. (2005, Apr 15).Road traffic accidents in the UAE compared to western countries. Advances in Transportation Studies, Retrieved Jan 20, 2006, from http://www. psychology. nottingham. ac. uk/staff/dec/references/Bener (2005)%20-%20Advances%20in%20TranStudies. pdf Insurance firms shut down branches at QTIC premises. (2005). The Peninsula. Retrieved Dec 16, 2005, from http://www. thepeninsulaqatar. com/Display_news. asp? section=local_news&month=september2005&file=local_news2005090421520. xml Al Malki, C. M. (2005). More radars to detect traffic violations. The Peninsula. Retrieved Dec 18, 2005, from http://www. hepeninsulaqatar. com/Display_news. asp? section=local_news&month=march2005&file=local_news2005031525951. xml Bibbo, B. (2005). Qatar includes jail terms in amendments to traffic law. Gulf News. Retrieved Jan 08, 2006, from http://archive. gulfnews. com/articles/05/09/20/182668. html Hall, T. (2006). How not to drive yourself mad. The Weekend, p. 61. Al Dosri, B. (2005). New traffic rules come into force. The Peninsula. Retrieved Jan 23, 2006, from http://www. thepeninsulaqatar. com/Display_news. asp? section=Local_News&subsection=Qatar+News&month=October2005&file=Local_News2005102633414. xml [pic][pic][pic]

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Semantic Field Definition and Examples

Semantic Field Definition and Examples A semantic field is a set of words (or lexemes) related in meaning. The phrase is also known as a word field, lexical field, field of meaning, and semantic system. Linguist Adrienne Lehrer has defined semantic field more specifically as a set of lexemes which cover a certain conceptual domain and which bear certain specifiable relations to one another (1985). Examples and Observations The subject matter often unites a semantic field. The words in a semantic field share a common semantic property. Most often, fields are defined by subject matter, such as body parts, landforms, diseases, colors, foods, or kinship relations.... Lets consider some examples of semantic fields....The field of stages of life is arranged sequentially, though there is considerable overlap between terms (e.g., child, toddler) as well as some apparent gaps (e.g., there are no simple terms for the different stages of adulthood). Note that a term such as minor or juvenile belongs to a technical register, a term such as kid or tot to a colloquial register, and a term such as sexagenarian or octogenarian to a more formal register. The semantic field of water could be divided into a number of subfields; in addition, there would appear to be a great deal of overlap between terms such as sound/fjord or cove/harbor/bay. (Laurel J. Brinton, The Structure of Modern English: A Linguistic Introduction. John Benjamins, 2000) Metaphors and Semantic Fields Semantic fields are also sometimes called fields of meaning: Cultural attitudes to particular areas of human activity can often be seen in the choices of metaphor used when that activity is discussed. A useful linguistic concept to be aware of here is that of semantic field, sometimes called just field, or field of meaning.... The semantic field of war and battle is one that sports writers often draw on. Sport, particularly football, in our culture is also associated with conflict and violence. (Ronald Carter, Working With Texts: A Core Introduction to Language Analysis. Routledge, 2001) More and Less Marked Members of a Semantic Field Color terms also help illustrate how words are grouped into a semantic field. In a semantic field, not all lexical items necessarily have the same status. Consider the following sets, which together form the semantic field of color terms (of course, there are other terms in the same field): Blue, red, yellow, green, black, purpleIndigo, saffron, royal blue, aquamarine, bisque The colors referred to by the words of set 1 are more usual than those described in set 2. They are said to be less marked members of the semantic field than those of set 2. The less marked members of a semantic field are usually easier to learn and remember than more marked members. Children learn the term blue before they learn the terms indigo,, royal blue, or aquamarine. Often, a less marked word consists of only one morpheme, in contrast to more marked words (contrast blue with royal blue or aquamarine). The less marked member of a semantic field cannot be described by using the name of another member of the same field, whereas more marked members can be thus described (indigo is a kind of blue, but blue is not a kind of indigo). Less marked terms also tend to be used more frequently than more marked terms; for example, blue occurs considerably more frequently in conversation and writing than indigo or aquamarine....Less marked terms are also often broader in meaning than more marked terms.... Finally, less marked words are not the result of the metaphorical usage of the name of another object or concept, whereas more marked words often are; for example, saffron is the color of a spice that lent its name to the color. (Edward Finegan. Language: Its Structure and Use, 5th ed. Thomson Wadsworth, 2008)

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Protest Songs

Protest Songs Protest songs flooded the air of college radios during the 1960’s. The Civil Rights movement was the biggest domestic news and a time was coming when action was going to be taken against legalized segregation. On the foreign front, the draft was tearing young men from their homes as soon as graduated from high school. During these times of protest, many music artists supported the rallies with songs challenging the social order. Protest songs of the 1960’s played an important roll in the most turbulent decade of the Twentieth Century. P.F. Sloan’s â€Å"Eve of Destruction† sung by Barry McGuire and Bob Dylan’s â€Å"These Times They Are A-Changin’† have some similarities, but were aimed at different concerns. Both songs were written in the early to mid-1960’s and dealt with the political issues of Civil Rights act and the Vietnam War. However, â€Å"These Times They Are A-Changin’† is a folk song, and â€Å"Eve of Destruction† is of the rock genre. â€Å"Eve of Destruction†, written in 1965, highlights the tragedies of war and seems to focus on Vietnam. Sloan writes â€Å"you’re old enough to kill but not for votin’†. This line is in reference to the fact that 18-year old males were eligible to be drafted and sent to fight for their country, yet didn’t even hold a political voice. Sloan’s line of â€Å"If the button is pushed, there’s no running away, There’ll be nothing to save with the world in a grave† seems to be referring to the chance of utilizing nuclear weapons as a solution would, in fact, be an end to humanity . The next verse begins the section concerning the Civil Rights movement. Sloan says â€Å"handful of Senators don’t pass legislation, and marches alone can’t bring integration, when human respect is disintegratin’†. He’s talking about the Civil Rights amendment in congress and the fact that legal procedures need to be taken rather than just protests and marches. The first t... Free Essays on Protest Songs Free Essays on Protest Songs Protest Songs Protest songs flooded the air of college radios during the 1960’s. The Civil Rights movement was the biggest domestic news and a time was coming when action was going to be taken against legalized segregation. On the foreign front, the draft was tearing young men from their homes as soon as graduated from high school. During these times of protest, many music artists supported the rallies with songs challenging the social order. Protest songs of the 1960’s played an important roll in the most turbulent decade of the Twentieth Century. P.F. Sloan’s â€Å"Eve of Destruction† sung by Barry McGuire and Bob Dylan’s â€Å"These Times They Are A-Changin’† have some similarities, but were aimed at different concerns. Both songs were written in the early to mid-1960’s and dealt with the political issues of Civil Rights act and the Vietnam War. However, â€Å"These Times They Are A-Changin’† is a folk song, and â€Å"Eve of Destruction† is of the rock genre. â€Å"Eve of Destruction†, written in 1965, highlights the tragedies of war and seems to focus on Vietnam. Sloan writes â€Å"you’re old enough to kill but not for votin’†. This line is in reference to the fact that 18-year old males were eligible to be drafted and sent to fight for their country, yet didn’t even hold a political voice. Sloan’s line of â€Å"If the button is pushed, there’s no running away, There’ll be nothing to save with the world in a grave† seems to be referring to the chance of utilizing nuclear weapons as a solution would, in fact, be an end to humanity . The next verse begins the section concerning the Civil Rights movement. Sloan says â€Å"handful of Senators don’t pass legislation, and marches alone can’t bring integration, when human respect is disintegratin’†. He’s talking about the Civil Rights amendment in congress and the fact that legal procedures need to be taken rather than just protests and marches. The first t...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Measuring Things In Various Sports - ESL Quiz

Measuring Things In Various Sports - ESL Quiz This is a series of two quizzes focusing on sports vocabulary. The first quiz deals with measuring sports, and the second quiz on sporting venues. Time, the score and distance are measured in various ways depending on which type of sport you are speaking about. Decide which time, score and/or distance measurement is used in each of the sports below. Some of the words are used more than once: game, point, set, mile, inning, strokes, yard, round, move, match, meter, round, quarter, out, half, lap, down, length American Football: _____European Football: _____Tennis: _____Chess: _____Swimming: _____Ping Pong: _____Horse Racing: _____Ice Hockey: _____Boxing: _____Volleyball: _____Athletics: _____Motor Racing: _____Baseball: _____Racketball: _____Squash: _____Golf: _____    Here are the answers to the previous quiz: American Football: point, down, quarter, half, yardEuropean Football: point, meter, halfTennis: point, game, set, matchChess: move, gameSwimming: length, meterPing Pong: point, gameHorse Racing: lap, lengthIce Hockey: point, quarter, half, gameBoxing: roundVolleyball: point, gameAthletics: meter, yardMotor Racing: lap, miles, metersBaseball: point, inning, outRacketball: point, gameSquash: point, gameGolf: stroke    The question above could be answered with pitch or field depending on whether you are talking about European football or American football. Sports take place on/in all sorts of different areas. Decide whether the sport is played on/in the following areas. Some of the words are used more than once: court, rink, table, course, field, ring, pitch, board, track, ring, field, pool American Football: _____European Football: _____Tennis: _____Chess: _____Swimming: _____Ping Pong: _____Horse Racing: _____Ice Hockey: _____Boxing: _____Volleyball: _____Athletics: _____Motor Racing: _____Cricket: _____Baseball: _____Racketball: _____Squash: _____Ice Skating: _____Golf: _____    Here are the answers to the previous quiz: American Football: Field European Football: Pitch Tennis: Court Chess: Board Swimming: Pool Ping Pong: Table Horse Racing: Track Ice Hockey: Rink Boxing: Ring Volleyball: Court Athletics: Track Motor Racing: Track Cricket: Pitch Baseball: Field Racketball: Court Squash: Court Ice Skating: Rink Golf: Course Two More Sporting Vocabulary Quizzes Continue improving your sports vocabulary by taking these two quizzes on proper verb use and sporting equipment.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Negotiation Post 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Negotiation Post 2 - Essay Example Recently my parents had an argument over whether or not to buy a new car. My dad wanted to buy a new car since he had worked for such a long time making good money but had never driven his dream car- a Mercedes. My mum on the other hand thought that the money could be used to buy a new house instead of buying something as frivolous as a car. I asked my mum why she felt a new car was frivolous and why my dad wanted to buy one. She said that the money should be spent on something that can last and also be appreciated by everyone in the family instead of one person only. But she did not know why my dad felt so strongly that he should buy himself a new car. I then remebered Diamond discussing the idea that at times it pays off to concede in order to benefit in the future. I explained this to my mum as meaning- you would rather loose the battle than the war. Allowing my dad to buy the car would be loosing the battle but not the war. I asked her to go ask him and to listen intently and als o share her opinions. They had the dicussion and after that she understood where he was coming from. He felt that a man of his stature in society should be able to drive a good car after all his years of hard work. A skilled negotiator is one who can keep their eye on the â€Å"ultimate prize† and can thus afford to make certain compromises along the way but all in the aim of achieving the â€Å"ultimate prize†. Human nature dictates that once one person makes a sacrifice for another the other person then naturally feels obligated to reciprocate. I therefore asked my mum what her â€Å"ultimate prize† is and she said it was buying a new house because such investments were safe and they could be enjoyed by the family as a whole. I then told her not to lose sight of that objective because she would achieve it sooner rather than later. Fast foward seven years later, my parents who work together were rewarded handsomely for their efforts by a certain company and whe n I asked what they would do with the money, my mum simply said she had not decided yet. My dad looked at her sharply and asked if he did not have a say into how the money would be used and my mum simply said since she sacrificed last time then he had to sacrifice this time. Negotiation Post 2 Negotiation is often perceived to be a shouting match and about he who budges the least is deemed the winner. This is a misconception. On several occassions you find companies negotiating with their employees on their salaries and the company refuses to budge simply because it will be percieved as weak but the difference in increasing the employee’s salary would not have any effect on the company’s financial status. Stuart Diamond in his book Getting More states that negotiations are more about emotions than logic. It is therefore of paramount importance that the parties be on good terms. I recently worked in a law firm and a husband wanted to divorce his wife because they could not sort their differences out. From his demanour and speech you could immediately feel the anger and hatred between the two. I had to sit down with her lawyer as well and determine how the property would be shared out. Our client the husband was very wealthy before the marriage but he only truly cared about a certain piece of property that he had inherited from his father. He was willing to lose everything else but not that one. Acquiring this property was

Friday, October 18, 2019

Freedom of Speech Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Freedom of Speech - Essay Example ould help to uphold certain values such as truth, to involve ordinary citizens in political-decision making, to strengthen the community, for self-fulfillment of the individual, to help check abuse of governmental power, to promote tolerance and to create a more robust community (Introduction to the Free Speech Clause). The Supreme Court has been more protective of political speech compared to other commercial speeches. For example, the first amendment does not give rights to individuals to lie about other people (First Amendment: Speech). The expression of artists and the use of symbolism are also protected under the first amendment (Camp, 2005). However the first amendment provides protection only to a lesser extent to commercial speech, defamation, speech that would be harmful to children, those broadcast on radio and television and speech given by public employees. On the other hand the freedom of speech offers no or limited protection to obscenity, child pornography, speech that advocates the use of force or law violation or causing panic, true threats like fighting words, sedition, blackmail, perjury and those which solicit to commit crimes (Camp, 2005; Cohen, 2008). In addition to having its reservations in providing protection to speeches, the first amendment has incorporated time, place and manner restrictions to speeches that enjoy a very elaborate protection under the first amendment. These would be upheld if the speeches are not sufficiently justifiable, or are tailored in a way to suit governmental interest or if they do not leave open other alternative channels of communication. While music is acknowledged as a form of communication and expression, which enjoys complete protection under the amendment, the Court has placed volume restrictions for outdoor music. The amendment also provides rights to a city to place â€Å"zoning restrictions on adult theatres and bookstores†, despite them being fully protected by the amendment, if the goal is to prevent

Book review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 7

Book review - Essay Example He further jots that for them it is nothing more than history: not all that diverse from the Peloponnesian War. He has channeled this insight into publishing this book that gives a valuable overview, in spite of an individual’s proximity to the Cold War. He outlines three vital lessons of the cold war. First, it was in period of cold war that the military strength stopped to be defining attribute of power itself, which it had been for the past 500 years. Gaddis’ clearest explanation of this phenomenon is the fact: even after the USSR collapsed, it still had its nuclear power and military into place (Gaddis, p14). Gaddis illustrates prior to 1945, great countries fought great wars so often that they tended to be permanent features of the transnational landscape: Lenin even relied or depended on them to give the mechanisms by which capitalism would-self destruct. However, after 1945 wars were limited to those between smaller powers and superpowers, as in vitenam, Korea and Afghanistan or to wars among smaller powers. What never occurred, in spite of world fears that it might, was a full force war involving the Soviet Union, United States and their respective allies. For the first time since timely memorial, no one could be assured of triumph, or surviving a big war. Second, the cold war discouraged dictatorship. Gaddis points out that even though china, the USSR and several states in Europe had authoritarian governments back in 1948 when a well-known book about totalitarian world, 1984, by George Orwell got published, the systems did not extend to the other countries. As 20th century was about to elapse, communism fell out of favor since it failed in delivering its promise of making the workers live better. Third, the cold war period, experienced globalization of democracy, explained by the growing number of democracies as the 20th century was elapsing (Gaddis, p82).

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Family Business Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 11000 words

Family Business - Research Paper Example This condition, in turn, has transformed contemporary organisations. Organisations pursue competencies that make firms globally competitive. Companies’ pursuit of competencies is no longer just limited to financial and physical capital, but it also includes human capital. This move is necessary to create added value to their services or products, attract new customers, and retain loyal clients (Nordhaug, 1993; Westhead & Matlay, 2006). However, despite the fast phase changes in the modern period, the significant and integral role of the family in the economic activities of the society remains undeterred (Aldrich & Cliff, 2003). Of the several facets manifesting the integral role of the family in the society, the influence of family on business, in terms of firm creation and management, is no longer limited to small businesses, but it also consists of large corporations with families holding majority shares (Steier, Chrisman & Chua, 2004). This scenario is observed not only in the United States and in Europe, but it is also an event that has become perceptible in China, Japan and other Asian countries (Steier et al., 2004). As such, it can be claimed that there is a pervasive participation of families in the establishment and management of economic institutions that redefines the role of families in economic organisations and activities as well as in organisational life (Aldrich & Cliff, 2003; Morck & Nakamura, 2003; Steier et al., 2004). In this context, family owned business (FOB), just like non-family owned business, requires effective governance for the firm to achieve continued growth and success. Implementation of policies, strategies and management by family founders/owners are geared towards attaining efficient and effective governance that will sustain and maintain the family corporation (Angus, 2005). Effective FOB governance is essential not only in handling organisational issues and in wealth management of the FOB, but it is also necessary in handling conflicts arising from family relations involve in the business (Moore& Juenemann, 2008). In this condition, understanding governance in family owned business becomes one of the essential factors in determining FOB’s sustainability, growth and success in the era of globalisation. Background of the Study Family owned businesses play a crucial role in economic activities across the globe (Steier et al, 2004). Families creating and managing their own businesses have become pervasive and it is clearly manifest in many developing countries (Ramachandra & Merisetty, 2009). However, as economic institutions, FOBs require effective governance that will ensure not only their continued existence in the market, but can also guarantee the firm’

Inclusion2 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Inclusion2 - Research Paper Example Inclusion as a â€Å"term and as a practice was initially introduced with reference to disability but now refers to a general practice of equality and an active effort to attempt to determine ways that children are not precluded from services and experiences due to their difference, including a disability.†1 Inclusion in the context of a Jewish Primary School draws into consideration the issue of the Jewish religion particulars, which requires a particular understanding and knowledge concerning said religion that not just anybody would be equipped to impart. Thus, to require inclusion that mandated the teaching of the Jewish religion may be beyond the requirements for inclusion in the laws expressed by the United States law makers. However, if we are considering just the disability of the child that happens to be Jewish, then they would be treated the same as any other child under the law as pertains to their disability. Why include children with disabilities in Jewish schools ? In the case of children that attend Jewish schools, there is a real good chance that those children live in a family that at least one of the parents practices the Jewish religion. ... Inclusion is a â€Å"means of assuring social justice for all students with the objective of ensuring a greater benefit to society as a whole.†2 Therefore, all teachers should aim to be an inclusive teacher with a classroom where â€Å"the full participation of all students in all aspects of schooling†3 is embraced and accomplished. Research has confirmed that â€Å"teachers who embody and promote inclusion have been shown to improve learning for all students, regardless of significant individual differences.†4 In a report that described the â€Å"first national study specifically designed to determine the near-term effects of day schools on the academic, social, and Jewish trajectories of former students during their college years. The study considers the impact of day schooling in a variety of areas including Jewish identity and connections to Jewish communal life, as well as social and academic integration into college. The study contextualizes the experience s of students from day schools through comparison with Jewish undergraduates from private and public school backgrounds. Although the findings suggest that day schools can do more to improve math and science learning and to address the needs of diverse learners, the report also validates that day schools provide top-notch preparation for a broad range of colleges and universities, including those that are the most selective.†5 So, it would appear that to allow for inclusion in such a powerfully impactful environment during the formative years, the long-term effects are greatly to be desired by all Jewish students, and by logical extension, especially for those Jewish students with

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Family Business Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 11000 words

Family Business - Research Paper Example This condition, in turn, has transformed contemporary organisations. Organisations pursue competencies that make firms globally competitive. Companies’ pursuit of competencies is no longer just limited to financial and physical capital, but it also includes human capital. This move is necessary to create added value to their services or products, attract new customers, and retain loyal clients (Nordhaug, 1993; Westhead & Matlay, 2006). However, despite the fast phase changes in the modern period, the significant and integral role of the family in the economic activities of the society remains undeterred (Aldrich & Cliff, 2003). Of the several facets manifesting the integral role of the family in the society, the influence of family on business, in terms of firm creation and management, is no longer limited to small businesses, but it also consists of large corporations with families holding majority shares (Steier, Chrisman & Chua, 2004). This scenario is observed not only in the United States and in Europe, but it is also an event that has become perceptible in China, Japan and other Asian countries (Steier et al., 2004). As such, it can be claimed that there is a pervasive participation of families in the establishment and management of economic institutions that redefines the role of families in economic organisations and activities as well as in organisational life (Aldrich & Cliff, 2003; Morck & Nakamura, 2003; Steier et al., 2004). In this context, family owned business (FOB), just like non-family owned business, requires effective governance for the firm to achieve continued growth and success. Implementation of policies, strategies and management by family founders/owners are geared towards attaining efficient and effective governance that will sustain and maintain the family corporation (Angus, 2005). Effective FOB governance is essential not only in handling organisational issues and in wealth management of the FOB, but it is also necessary in handling conflicts arising from family relations involve in the business (Moore& Juenemann, 2008). In this condition, understanding governance in family owned business becomes one of the essential factors in determining FOB’s sustainability, growth and success in the era of globalisation. Background of the Study Family owned businesses play a crucial role in economic activities across the globe (Steier et al, 2004). Families creating and managing their own businesses have become pervasive and it is clearly manifest in many developing countries (Ramachandra & Merisetty, 2009). However, as economic institutions, FOBs require effective governance that will ensure not only their continued existence in the market, but can also guarantee the firm’

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Mona Lisa Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Mona Lisa - Assignment Example I find the facial expression of Mona Lisa somewhat vague and enigmatic as if there is some mystery behind her half smile. Her calm pose suggests the same. Her eyes and hair too have an innate power to attract the viewer. This is one of the special features of the painting because it is remarkable how Leonardo managed to capture such an emotional state within a portrait. It is not so much the attention to detail such as the folds on her sleeves for example, but capturing this mysterious expression and use of the sfumato (gentle toning down) (Queiros-Conde 2004) technique overall that demonstrates his true greatness as a painter. Others have described the painting in a similar way too but I do not believe it is hype. If the story about trying to amuse Mona before making her portrait (Vasari 2006) is true this shows in her expression but I still believe there is more hidden beneath the surface. Perhaps there is some truth concerning the recent nude Mona Lisa discovery (Lorenzi 2009). It s parallels with the original Mona Lisa could indicate that the painter and the painted had a special rapport and liking for each other. If so, this explains much of the natural yet mysterious expressions of the Mona Lisa. The Mona Lisa is a good example of the High Renaissance style because like the paintings of Raphael and Michelangelo, it is a portraiture and work of beauty showing an â€Å"artist’s individual skills and vision† (pbs.org). This was the typical style of painting at the time besides art for historical and religious purposes. â€Å"The idea that painters and sculptors might create from personal inspiration was new† (ibid) during the Renaissance period. But what makes the painting characteristically a work of Leonardo da Vinci are the painstaking effort that must have gone into it, the skilful use of the sfumato, the careful portrayal of perspective, and the strong sense of imagination coupled with

Monday, October 14, 2019

Medieval and Renaissance Art Essay Example for Free

Medieval and Renaissance Art Essay The most significant difference between medieval and renaissance art is that renaissance art paid more attention to the human body, and to detail. Both, however, focused mainly on religious themes, although not necessarily Christian. Renaissance artists are remembered because they brought about the changes that led to the art of today. When looking at medieval art, such as The Notary of Perugia Writing a Document it is quite obvious that very little attention to detail is included. There is no depth to the painting, the writing on the parchment bares no resemblance to actual text, and everyone in the picture has the same face. In contrast, when looking at a renaissance painting, like Christ the Redeemer by Titian quite a bit more attention is given to detail, even though the scene does not encompass nearly as much. It is possible to see shadowing in the painting, as well as to the behavior of fabrics. There is also a good feel of depth with much attention paid not only to making a nice background, but separating it from the foreground as well. There are many similarities in the two styles; they are, after all, separated by a short period in history. One similarity might be a choice of colors, as the most visually appealing color combinations had yet to be discovered. Another similarity would be the lack of understanding of how to accurately represent the human body, as this was considered sinful by the church; Leonardo di Vinci did began to change this with some of his works though. The short period in time left similarities between the styles of art, but they were few, far between, and diminished fast. Renaissance artists put forth much greater effort into these works and it really shows in the quality, rather then the quantity produced.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Adverse effects of flood in Pakistan

Adverse effects of flood in Pakistan Executive Summary: The Flood of 2010 which affected around 20 million people in Pakistan directly and left them homeless have been the worst flood that Pakistan and the world has ever seen. The research was conducted on the subject of adverse effects of flood in Pakistan and how it has affected our agriculture, banks, economy, imports and exports. The research was basically exploratory in nature in which we gathered articles from various institutions, organizations and newspapers. There is so much material available on the topic that it became a challenge for us to remain specific and to the point. One more problem was that due to many sources there were a clash in the facts figures so we have taken out the reliable resources in order to make it less confusing. The research concluded that the flood has caused unprecedented devastation to Pakistans economy, agriculture, infrastructure, imports/exports and above all, to human lives and dignity. Not only 20 million have to be given food and shelter but for the long term the government and the people have to create jobs so that they can stand on their own feet again. Introduction Natural Disaster is the effect of natural hazards which includes flood, tornado, volcano eruption, earthquake or landslide that affects the environment, leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses. It is terrible event that is not caused by human activity and results in deaths, injuries or damage to property. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, and their resilience. This perceptive is concentrated in the formulation: disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability .A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has therefore been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement. Natural disasters which occur due to the change of plate tectonics are earthquakes, volcanoes, geyser eruptions and tsunami. These different types of natural disasters have taken away millio ns of lives and have caused trillions of dollars in terms of financial losses. The recent flood in Pakistan was one of the worst natural disasters in Pakistans history and in worlds history. It was one of the biggest disasters that the world have ever experienced not in terms of death but in terms of people affected, area affected and in terms of financial losses that occurred. Almost one- eighth of the population was directly affected by flood. The floods that recently caused great damage to Pakistan had more impact than the combine impact of tsunami in 2004, Haiti earthquake in 2010 and Earthquake of 2005 that affected northern areas of Pakistan. The affected people in these combine three disasters were around 11 million people but in the recent flood affected around 20 million people across Pakistan. Pakistan has experienced floods and the details of those floods are provided below: Flood in September 1992 affected 12 million people Flood in August 1992 affected 6 million people Flood in August 1976 affected 5 million people Flood in July 1978 affected 2.2 million people Flood in July 1995 affected 1.2 million people The Flood of 2010 which affected around 20 million people in Pakistan directly and left them homeless have been the worst flood that Pakistan and the world have ever seen. Only eight million out of 20 million people were affected in the province of Punjab. It has caused billions of dollars losses to Pakistans economy, agriculture, imports etc. According to World Bank and Asian Development Bank the economic impact of recent flood is estimated as much as 43 billion dollars. Topic: Adverse effects of floods in Pakistan. MAP: This map is highlighting the flood affected areas from severe (red) to moderate (orange). C:Documents and SettingsFaizanaliDesktopuntitled.bmp Purpose Statement: To determine the adverse effects of recent floods in Pakistan. Research Questions: How the recent has floods affected Pakistan? Sub-Research Question: How has the floods affected our agriculture? How has the floods affected the banks? How has the floods affected our economy? How has the floods affected our Imports and Exports? Hypothesis: The recent floods have an adverse affect on our economy. LITERATURE REVIEW Effect on Agriculture Agriculture sector have been the backbone of the Pakistans economy and Pakistan is known as agriculture based country. According to the facts provide by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Agriculture is one of the main sector of Pakistans economy employing more than 42% of the labor force and accounts to 23% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The recent floods did not only led to human loss but had a large impact on the agriculture sector directly. It destroyed many crops and over an estimated area of 1.38 million acres were affected due to recent flood of 2010. Pakistans major crops are cotton, wheat and rice. Wheat is one of the Important produce of Pakistan has been severely damaged in the flood. According to the data provided by Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock shows and we quote: Punjab: 44,896 tonnes Khyber Pukhtunkhwa: 80,823 tonnes Sindh: 5,41,696 tonnes Balochistan: 321, 651 tonnes The above facts stated by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock shows that total of 0.6 million tones of wheat has been damaged throughout the county and major places that were affected were parts of Sindh and Balochistan but the government is taking out positives from these flood that is they think that these flood would lead to more fertile land and that would lead to bumper crop in coming year in the flood- affected regions. According to analysis done by Dr. Abdul Rashid, Member Monitoring and Evaluation, Punjab Agriculture Board, he told Dawn.com and we quote This fertile layer will result in good yields in the coming years. According to former Federal Minister for Food Agriculture and Livestock Khair Muhammad Junejo, he said and we quote Flood overall effect for land will be beneficial. Dr Abdul Rashid further said and we quote The floods will recharge the water in the soil and underground water resources will increase. According to another expert Dr Shamsuddin Tunjo, professor at the faculty of Crop Production at the Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam is of the opnion and we quote: Plain lands may benefit in the terms of fertilityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ the floods erode away rich layers of soil and if water stands for a long time in the land, the next seasons crop may not be grown. C:Documents and SettingsFaizanaliDesktopp09_24420661.jpg This picture surely tells us what has happened to our agriculture land. According to the Facts Stated by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which works under the United Nation Organization: It is almost impossible to measure the gravity of losses to the agriculture sector as they are huge and further unfolding. Almost 80% people in the flood affected areas rely on agriculture for their livelihood and they see it as their main source of income One of the toughest task that the farmers will have to face is to recover their land in time when the new season begins in September/ October. Overall throughout the country millions of people have lost their entire means to sustain themselves in the immediate and longer term, all this is due to the destruction/ damage of standing crops and means of agriculture production. According to FAO although they have completed in half of all flood affected districts shows that 1.3 million hectares of standing crops have been damaged. According to their statistics 0.5-0.6 million tones of wheat stock have been affected. According to their Livestock Department recent flood caused death of 1.2 large and small animals, and 6 million poultry. With the assessment still taking place, the losses are going to affect millions directly and indirectly and will have the direct impact on the countrys GDP as these crops would have to be imported to meet the countrys demand for wheat and rice. Response to needs in the agriculture sector cannot be ignored nor delayed. According to their estimates standing crops on over 10,000 hectares have been washed away and nearly 8000 livestock have been destroyed in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province alone. The worst affected districts are Swat, Nowshera, Charsadda, Shangla and Kohistan. Nowshera and Charsadda are the most fertile areas in the country producing variety of crops. Wheat is the main staple in Pakistan, fulfilling almost 35% of the average per capita calorie requirement in 2008. This year in Pakistan a record harvest took place for wheat around 23.4 million tones prior to flood, the flood water result in serious losses of wheat stocks that were held at household level. The loss of wheat can have a negative impact on the planting of next season which will begin in October/November because the flood have caused loss of seeds, fertilizers, livestock and savings. According to their estimates 1.2 million livestock and 6 million poultry have perished. One of the main reason that this figure is so high is because when people were rescued during the recent flood people did not take their animals with them and opted to save their life. The major challenge faced by different agencies working in Pakistan during this flood was to provide food to animals who survived as the supply was very limited and they face difficult task of transporting this food supply as majority of infrastructure was also destroyed. The United Nation has appealed for emergency assistant of $ 5.7 million for livestock. A closer look has been done by CASSIM Investments (PVT) LTD (18 Aug 2010) They have identified major crops that have been affected due to recent flood in Pakistan and they have given details of damages incurred by different crops. Cotton: It has been worst hit crop, as according to initial estimates we have lost as much as 2 million bales. This will direct impact on our textile industry and will lead to import of cotton. This will put pressure on our current account deficit and lead to deprecation of our currency. Wheat: According to them , they estimate they due to recent flood that have damaged wheat badly will lead to wheat shortage which is main staple in Pakistan. Rice: Pakistan is one of the main rice exporter in the world and they estimate that Pakistan might not be able to meet its target of rice exports this year as they expect losses in crop as well. This will result in loss of foreign exchange and widening of current account deficit Sugar: They have estimated a loss of 500,000 tonnes of sugar cane, approximately 2-3% of the sugar cane demand. They believe it will have minimum impact on the availability of refined sugar. Effect on Economy The congressional research report that was present to the congress member on recent flood in Pakistan stated the economic effects of floods. According to them it is too early to assess the damage caused by flood and it can only be assessed once the water goes away to examine the extent of damage caused to crops, housing, roads and bridges, electrical grid and other critical elements to its economic recovery. According to the preliminary assessment done by the Asian Development Bank and FAO shows that around 14% of cultivated land has been affected by floods, that resulted in loss of 25% of the cotton crop and some other crops, Pakistan has also lost 1% of its livestock and there is danger of this percentage rising due to feed shortages and lack of veterinary care after the flood waters recede. The broader effect of flood can also be felt with price of domestic items soaring and creating high inflation. In addition to this government spending on relief activities is going to widen the fiscal deficit. According to United Nation Organization it estimates that the recent flood will increase Pakistans fiscal deficit expenditures by $4 billion in fiscal year 2010/11. A preliminary evaluation reported submitted to the Pakistans ministry of finance has estimated that there will be zero percent GDP growth and 25% inflation this year. The figure shows that Pakistan is going to face tough challenges ahead in year 2010/11 because the targets set by the IMF (International monetary fund) varied with these figures. IMF set a target of 4.5% GDP growth and with 9% inflation. The long-term economic effects are not easy to assess. According to one source, repairing damaged infrastructure that includes roads, bridges and dames would cost Pakistan whopping $15 billion. There are 44 critical factors that will hamper the speed of Pakistans economic progress over the next few years. Now Pakistan which is already face tough challenges since 2008 has the lowest TAX-GDP ratio in the world with figures acc ounting to 8-9 %. The World Bank and the Asian Development have agreed to give loans $ 1 billion and $2 billion respectively but they have also attached conditions to these loans. The IMF which have provided loan of $ 10-11 billion have asked Pakistan to review its monetary policy and fiscal policy. They have set targets for Pakistan and prior to these floods Pakistan have failed to achieve some of the targets set by the International Monetary fund. The IMF set condition of lowering fiscal deficit to 5.1 % during this year while Pakistan exceeded this limit and had a fiscal deficit of 6.2 % of the GDP, now that flood have occurred it looks impossible that Pakistan would be able to meet the targets set by IMF. Pakistan have to pay back the loan to IMF by 2012/13 and it would cost the country $3 billion per year. Pakistan external debt has already amounted to $55.5 billion which is 56% of the GDP. These figures are a prove that Pakistan which is already unable to meet the requirements set by the international donors will find it impossible to meet the target after the recent flood that have moved Pakistan decades back. According to CASSIM INVESTMENTS (PVT) LTD They have stated that since the entire infrastructure have been badly destroyed specially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and some areas of Punjab. All this will have to build to revive economic activity and thus this has forced the government to cut down is Public Sector Development Program by almost 50 % this means that all the development projects which were taking place in order to improve the economy have now been stopped and the funds have been shifted towards the flood affected areas. They have also stated that the imports of goods for relief purpose will widen the current account deficit. Foreign Aid will help the country in the short term, but will constrict the amount of PSDP available with the financial cost burden in the future. A current account shortage will cause devaluation of the currency, which is favorable for sectors for exports but if we see in our country it will have negative impact because depreciation would result in high inflation damaging Pakistans fiscal policy and monetary policy. According to an article in Daily Times on August 29 2010 it states that and we quote Government of Pakistan will revise its economic growth targets and major budget projections in consultation with International Monetary Fund (IMF), official sources informed here on Saturday. Damage caused to the backbone of the economy; the agriculture sector of is provisionally estimated at Rs 244.6 billion and losses due to the damage to the infrastructure and private and public properties are estimated to be around Rs 600 billion in all four provinces, Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan. Consultation on revision in macro-economic targets is to be taken during the ongoing fifth review of Pakistans economy with IMF authorities at Washington. Economic growth targets and major budget projections for the 2010-13 were approved under the Medium Term Budgetary Framework for the next three years, however, the floods have changed the entire scene on the economic landscape of the country that requires major revision. Devastation caused by the floods across the country has seriously damaged the main sectors of economy especially the agriculture sector and Pakistans development priorities have changed and a major portion of resources are being planned to divert towards rehabilitation of flood affecters. Recent floods across the country have caused devastations worth Rs 244.6 billion in the agriculture sector with maximum damage suffered by the small farmers who have faced a loss of around Rs 98 billion, some facing total annihilation of their crops. While on the other hand, Finance Ministry has convened an important meeting, to review key macroeconomic indicators of the country following devastation of floods. Sources said that meeting of the Medium Term Budgetary Framework (MTBF) being held at Ministry of Finance would review the rolling targets of key macroeconomic indicators for the next three years, which were unveiled in the budget. They recent floods have changed the economic priorities of the country and budgetary targets have become totally irrelevant on the face of massive displacement caused by worst ever floods in the history of the country. This information is expected to be shared with IMF during talks currently underway in Washington that would continue till September 2. Growth target of 4.5 percent for 2010-11 was to reach 5 percent in 2011-12 and 5.5 percent for 2012- 2013 under the MTBF. Sources said that growth target for the current fiscal year as well as for the next two years would have to be revised because of the devastating floods whose impact on economy would remain for the next few years. Inflation was targeted to be brought down to 9.5 per cent in the ongoing fiscal year and 8 and 7 percent for 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively. These targets have become irrelevant and would be readjusted in view of the present situation; the same is the case with revenue collection targets. The governments revenue collection targets of 15.2 percent of the GDP for the ongoing fiscal year and 15.5 and 15.9 percent for the next two years respectively are unlikely to be met. http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/j/MSNBC/Components/Slideshows/_production/ss-100730-Pakistan-floods/ss-100819-Pakistan-floods-03.ss_full.jpg One of the many industries drowned in the flood. Dr. Amjad Waheed, CFA, Chief Executive Officer of NBP Fullerton Asset Management Limited (Formerly National Fullerton Asset Management Limited) has written an in depth article on the countrys economic condition and has projected the future trends in our economy. Highlights are given below. Total Losses estimated at 5.8% of GDP. Around 15% of the Pakistani population has been affected by the floods. According to some initial estimates agricultural losses may exceed Rs 250 billion whereas infrastructure losses may exceed Rs 600 billion. Thus total estimated losses of around US$10 billion will equal 5.8% of Pakistans GDP. Economic Growth rate expected to be subdued. We expect agriculture sector to show a negative growth, and industry and services sector to grow by about 3%. We project corporate earnings to rise by 14% over the next four quarters, down from our previous estimates of 18% growth. Fiscal Deficit is expected to balloon to 7.5% of GDP in FY11. The slowdown in economy as a result of the floods will make tax collection target of Rs 1.7 trillion extremely difficult to achieve. On the other hand, government expenditures are expected to rise substantially to re-build the infrastructure in the floods-affected areas and rehabilitate the effected families. Domestic Government borrowing in the form of Treasury Bills and National Savings Schemes is also expected to rise substantially. In the months of July and August 2010, the Government Treasury Bills stock has already risen by about Rs 137 billion. This will also continue to crowd out the private sector. As a result, the budget deficit is estimated to cross 7.5% of GDP in FY11. Inflation and Interest Rates are expected to rise further. The imposition of value added tax from October, damage to crops from floods, projected rise in utility prices and expected additional taxes to support people affected with floods may result in inflation rising to around 15% in FY11. Stock Market performance expected to remain lackluster in FY11. Floods are expected to have a negative impact on the banking industry, auto industry and oil marketing companies, at least in the short run. In the remaining period of FY11 the stock market may not be able to show a double digit growth from the current levels. The Margin Trading System, even if implemented, is not going to make a significant difference to the performance of the Pakistani stock market, in my opinion, as the economic and political fundamentals will take time to improve. Trade and Current Account Deficit are expected to Rise. Pakistans exports will suffer due to damage to the key crops and textile sector resulting from floods, as well as power shortfall and high inflation. Pakistans imports, on the other hand, are expected to show an increase due to import of around 2-3 million bales of cotton and food products. Investors are advised to remain conservative and prefer money market funds relative to equity funds for the time being. Effect on Banks The Moodys investor services changed the long-term local currency deposit ratings and bank financial strength ratings of the big-5 banks from stable to negative, said Muniba Saeed, an analyst at Invest Capital, here Saturday. The change in the outlook of the banks was driven mainly by the impact of flood giving rise to economic challenges. The food shortage and rising input prices will further hinder the corporate sectors recovery due to the slowdown in the economic growth and inflationary pressures. The rating agency expects that higher input prices would lead to a loss of competitiveness in certain export-oriented sectors, especially textiles. According to data from the State Bank of Pakistan, the banking sector exposure to textiles as of June stood at eight per cent of the total exposure, however, the banking sector exposure to cumulative textiles and the crop growing category of agriculture stood at 11 per cent of the total, or Rs635 billion. As textiles being the highest borrower in the manufacturing sector, such dependence are likely to dent the sectors profitability, owing to increased provisioning requirement and resultant increased probability of the non-performing loans. The banks non-performing loans (NPLs) have grown to an alarming level of Rs456 billion by March this year on the back of a sliding economy, according to the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP). The increasing NPLs are squeezing the profits of the banks, as they are required under the prudential regulations to make provisions against their bad debt. National Bank of Pakistan, the lender with the highest delinquency ratio, faces an increase in loan failures after the worst flooding in the countrys history damaged farmland in areas where the bank lends. Syed Ali Raza, the banks president, said in an interview in Karachi, There will certainly be some impact on non-performing loans. The impact will be containable but it will be there. He continued, While there were immediate losses from floods largely in the agriculture sector, there is a positive side to the disaster as it has refreshed farmland across the country. The yield from those farms is likely to improve with better, more fertile soil and availability of water in the next season. Abdul Shakur, a research analyst at BMA Capital Management Ltd. in Karachi said With around 25 percent of its total lending to agriculture related business, it will be a real challenge for National Bank to register growth in profit, He estimates a 22 percent decline in National Banks profit in 2010. Muhammad Imran, head of research at Arif Habib Investment Ltd. in Karachi said The flood losses and the discount rate rise may limit the ability of borrowers to return loans. Banks may be asked to reschedule and ease terms. The central bank said in an e-mailed statement Given the likely impact of the recent floods, ongoing challenging economic environment, power shortages and security situation in the country, the increased portfolio of non- performing loans and heightened credit risk remain the major challenge for the banking system. Effects on the Imports/Exports The recent floods in Pakistan have badly affected the Pakistans economy. The floods as caused a widespread destruction badly affecting the infrastructure, the farmlands and many industries. The floods have caused destruction to cotton, wheat and rice crops extensively thereby affecting the exports of finished products such as textile, and also raw material such as rice and cotton bales. According to the USDA Report, Due to the devastating floods, Post revises its 2010/11 rice production estimates for Pakistan to 4.4 MMT, a decrease of 32%. Pakistani rice exports for 2010/11 are similarly reduced to an estimated 2.3 MMT, a decline of 36%. Rice is Pakistans second largest export product and the reduction in rice exports is expected to have implications for its balance of payments. However the figures given for cotton are bleaker, as before Pakistan used to export cotton but now this year Pakistan is forced to import cotton from India and other countries to meet its own local demand and also in order to fulfill the export orders. According to Fibre to Fashion (a leading textile news website), More than one million bales of cotton crops have been destroyed, and the Government is not in the capacity to achieve its target of 14 million bales of annual production. Due to this, Pakistan, being Asias fourth largest producer of cotton is likely to fall back by 10-15% of its cotton production. Incessant downpour has damaged the fields in Piplan Layyah, Mianwali, and Mithankot. Regions in the Central Punjab such as Rajanpur, Lyia, Rahimyar Khan, and DG Khan were seriously affected losing thousands of bales of cotton crop. Areas of Ghotki, Daherki, Sukkar, and Naushehro Feroz, Bhakkar, Jhang, Shorkot, and Mianwali were also affected by floods. This devastation has badly affected the Pakistani industry as well, and the destruction would also create difficulties as the raw material would not be available; however there are some positive feelings that the cotton would be imported with already huge shipments in line and that would help in meeting the international export orders. Also Pakistan has been able to achieve concessions from EU for exporting its produce with lesser duties thereby giving a lifeline to the industrial sector. Methodology: Our research is totally based on collection of data through articles, interviews and reports. We have found articles and reports on internet that have been previously written on this topic. We have collected facts and figures from websites of NGOs, Social welfares and government. We have conducted interviews with the NGOs and the welfare organizations to try to get the answers of our research questions. One of our group member also went to the affected places to try to know the ground situation. We have divided our research question into four categories and found their answers individually as well. We have gathered around 40 articles and from that we have shortlisted 17 articles. Analysis If we take into account the data above we can just analyze that Pakistans economy and other sectors have been adversely affected by the recent flood. It is not a vague statements but we have will proved it with facts and figures that although the recent flood have some positive impact as well but the negative effects over weigh the positive effect of recent flood of 2010. According to the statements given by Ali Raza the president of National bank of Pakistan says and we quote: There will certainly be some impact on non-performing loans. The impact will be containable but it will be there. He continued, While there were immediate losses from floods largely in the agriculture sector, there is a positive side to the disaster as it has refreshed farmland across the country. The yield from those farms is likely to improve with better, more fertile soil and availability of water in the next season. He is of the view that yes banks will be facing tough time in coming future but the agriculture sector can take out some positives from this flood that is more fertile land means bumper crop. The availability of water and more fertile soil will benefit the farmers in the long run, at the same time he was of the view that banks will start having a impact of the flood next year means start of 2011 when people would be unable to pay their loans and percentage % of non- performing loans will increase. So this shows that one sector of the economy will have to face tough time in near future while the other sector can take out some positives from the recent flood. According to former Federal Minister for Food Agriculture and Livestock Khair Muhammad Junejo, he said and we quote Flood overall effect for land will be beneficial. This also shows that the former minister is of the view that yes indeed flood have caused damages to farmland in this year but it will have a positive impact in the next year with more fertile land and with availability of water. Abdul Shakur, a research analyst at BMA Capital Management Ltd. in Karachi said With around 25 percent of its total lending to agriculture related business, it will be a real challenge for National Bank to register growth in profit, He estimates a 22 percent decline in National Banks profit in 2010 This statement shows that Abdul Shakur who is one of the experts is of the view that this flood will not only harm agriculture sector but the banking sector as well because banking sector relies heavily on the agriculture sector with quarter of its loans are being given to agriculture sector. When the National Bank of Pakistan will be facing tough time showing profit this means all the other banks will have a much larger impact if the agriculture fails to pay back their loans. The United Nation organization estimates that the recent flood will increase Pakistans fiscal deficit by 4$ billion that means with the current exchange rate Pakistan fiscal deficit will increase by 350 billion rupees. Pakistan who is already face challenges because of their war on terror and does not look good economy wise. Their targets set by IMF were 5.1 % of the GDP for fiscal deficit but they exceeded these targets by more than one percent and achieved 6.2% prior to these flood. This flood will not make things better for Pakistan but worse According to the Prime Minister of Pakistan Syed Yousuf Raza Gillani the government have decided to cut their PSDP (Public Sector Development Projects) by 50 % this means that from 650 billion government will only utilize around 325 billion and the rest of the funds wil